N. 7 (2014)

N. 7 (2014)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

Axis Diplomacy in Comparison: The Japanese and Italian Foreign Ministry in the 1930s, 1-12

Ken Ishida

Castells, sardanes and toros. The cultural disputes of nationalism during the dictatorship of Franco, 13-32

Pablo Giori

The International Committee of the Red Cross: the possible diplomatic recognition of Catalonia and the humanitarian effects on the Catalan political developments (1936-1939), 33-52

Arnau Gonzàlez Vilalta

On the move. Comparative sources for the study of the relationship between the labor movement and internal migration: Barcelona-Turin 1955-1969, 53-75

Michelangela Di Giacomo

Revolution, Transition and Democracy: the debate over the meaning of the Carnation Revolution, 77-98

Raquel Varela

Revisionism on the Brazilian dictatorship: the work of Elio Gaspari, 99-126

Gilberto Grassi Calil

Debates and dialogues

The ordinary life. Apología de la historia cultural, 127-138

Justo Serna

Las vidas corrientes en la historia social. Las vidas de todos y todas, 139-156

Lourenzo Fernández Prieto

Reviews and lecture notes, 157-234

Abstracts and Keywords

Axis Diplomacy in Comparison: The Japanese and Italian Foreign Ministry in the 1930s

Ken Ishida

Italy and Japan, which were the component of the Axis in the 1930s, had significant common features in their foreign policies although there were some structural differences in decision-making process. There were decisive developments in 1936 when Italy intervened in the Spanish Civil War and in 1937 when Japan started the all-out war against China. By comparing them, it was not only fanatic Fascists and ultranationalists that respectively pushed their countries towards adopting aggressive and reckless foreign policies, but also their foreign ministries despite the conventional wisdom that diplomats are often seen as being more moderate and rational.

Axis, Diplomacy, Comparative History, Italy, Japan

Castells, sardanes and toros. The cultural disputes of nationalism during the dictatorship of Franco

Pablo Giori

The contemporary Catalonia has been built over the basis of a very complex history of overlaps, battles and encounters between traditions, subjects and collective projects. The rhythm of the nation building processes are marked in their relationship and alliances with the hegemonic cultural practices: bullfighting, sardanes and castells. These practices develop not only ideas but also ways of doing things and feeling the world; through these, we participate in these projects in a relationship of identity and tension. We have to think about the conflicts between nationalisms during Francoism to understand the Catalan cultural development.

Contemporary Catalonia, Franco dictatorship, Culture, Nationalization

The International Committee of the Red Cross: the possible diplomatic recognition of Catalonia and the humanitarian effects on the Catalan political developments (1936-1939)

Arnau Gonzàlez Vilalta

The Spanish Civil War(1936-1939) involved the majority of European states in one or an other way, but it is also true that would do it with a political and neutral international organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). In order to mitigate the humanitarian impact on the civilian population, the Swiss organization deployed a wide range of activities through out the war.This action became of great importance in Catalonia through the Barcelona delegation that collaborated actively with the Catalan Government and the Consular Corps. Just pursuing the signature of an agreement with all the parties to the conflict to facilitate the possible evacuation of non combatant population is poised to foster international recognition (indirect) of Catalonia.The agreement was frustrated by the refusal of Largo Caballero and Franco, and impossibilities the decreasing of conflict victims.

Spanish Civil War, Catalonia, International Red Cross

On the move. Comparative sources for the study of the relationship between the labor movement and internal migration: Barcelona-Turin 1955-1969

Michelangela Di Giacomo

The Paper aims to define how and if it would be possible to make an historical research that would compare the attitudes toward inner migrations of some relevant workers’ organizations in Italy and Spain. It analyses the cities of Turin and Barcelona during the Sixties and in the couples PCI/PCE-PSUC and CGIL/CCOO. In the first part, it describes the sources: archives and bibliography. In the second part, it sketches some hypothesis about how to use those sources and it defines the principal points of a comparison.

Turin, Barcelona, Inter Migrations, Labour Movement

Revolution, Transition and Democracy: the debate over the meaning of the Carnation Revolution

Raquel Varela

The consolidation of a democratic representative regime from 1982-1986 and the abandonment of strategic projects of rupture, which only survive in extreme marginality, had a substantial impact on the historiographical discussion of the revolution. The Portuguese revolution not only ceased to be the subject of theoretical discussion, which was not further elaborated, as it even became, for some, submerged by the winners memory, which obscured the revolution with a vague notion of “chaos” and tried to erect upon it the theory of transition from dictatorship to representative democracy without a revolutionary leap. This phenomenon was revealed in the abandonment of the concept of revolution itself and the adoption of the concept of transition to democracy. We will discuss in this article three debates around the meaning of the revolution: the chapter ‘The revolution of 25 April and the PREC, by Rui Ramos in the history of Portugal he has coordinated, where the author sees the revolution as a ‘coup of generals’, directed by the AFM (MFA) on the ground, to which the people were essentially oblivious or manipulated; António Costa Pinto’s approach in more than one work, who sees the revolution as a troubled transition and consolidation of representative democracy; and Fernando Rosas’s analysis, for whom the process is marked by the revolutionary rupture that gave birth to democracy.

Social Revolution, Transition to Democracy, End of Iberian Dictatorship, Historiography

Revisionism on the Brazilian dictatorship: the work of Elio Gaspari

Gilberto Grassi Calil

In recent years various interpretations have been disseminated about the 1964 Coup in Brazil, about the dictatorship and the transition process to soften its violent character, splitting responsibilities between repressors and victims, in an operation that can be considered revisionist. The four volumes of books of journalist Elio Gaspari adopt and disseminate these interpretations, creating a narrative in which characters with prominent participation in the coup and in the dictatorship – such as Ernesto Geisel and Golbery do Couto e Silva – are presented in an extremely positive way. Our goal is to introduce and critically discuss its main propositions.

Historical revisionism, Dictatorship, Brazil, Elio Gaspari