N. 6 (2013)

N. 6 (2013)

Table of Contents

In memoriam

Julio Aróstegui

Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart

Researches and essays

The digital history: a certain idea and some illustrations, 15-35

Anaclet Pons

Correct, punish and forget the rogue soldiers. Military justice in the first third of the twentieth century, 37-61

Ana Isabel Alegre

The anarchist rally, a form of popular culture (Barcelona, late 19th and early 20th century), 63-83

Antoni Dalmau i Ribalta

Novecento’s female prisons: a centuries-old punitive routine, 85-112

Fernando Hernández Holgado

Acción Gallega: agrarian populism and political change in Galicia during «Restauración» 1912-1915, 113-131

Miguel Villaverde

Traitors, conformist and passionate politics. A new interpretation of interwar Europe between biography, analysis of language and political history, 133-157

Steven Forti

Debates and dialogues

Fascism and terrorism: extremist ideologies as a poisoned fruit of modernity?, 161-172

Roger Griffin, Xavier Casals Meseguer

Reviews and lecture notes, 175-237

Abstracts and Keywords

The digital history: a certain idea and some illustrations

Anaclet Pons

During the past decades, new technologies have challenged historians traditional ways of research, writing, and dissemination of their scholarship. My aim in this paper is to outline a general framework for dealing with digital history, suggesting a distinction between «history in the digital age» and «digital history»: between scholars using some forms of digital resources and tools (word processing software, PowerPoint slides, email, library catalogues, etc.) and scholars developing a new understanding of history, engaged with the role new digital technologies can play in studying the past. This essay analyzes both perspectives, presenting a large range of cases and its significances.

Historians; historical research; new technologies; digital history

Correct, punish and forget the rogue soldiers. Military justice in the first third of the twentieth century

Ana Isabel Alegre

This article is meant to shed light on the evolution of military justice in the Bourbon Restoration. This complex topic deals with issues related to the construction of masculinity in the military concocted and sponsored by the military penal codes. I analyze how a paternalistic discourse was structured in the military judicial system which promulgated a militarized masculine stereotype by rewarding certain acceptable behaviors and punishing others, which is described in detail in this study of military barracks. The main sources of this work are the military records of soldiers from 1894 and 1900, in the military zone of Madrid. This analysis of official documentation is combined with the study of the court-martial case of a soldier named Francisco Pacheco, which was widely covered by the media in late nineteenth century, which is compared to another case which revolves around violent events undertaken by soldiers during a picnic in Madrid.

Military codes; masculinity; virility; military prosecutors; individual freedom; alterity; military paternalism; obedience; military offenses; military crimes; crime statistics; rogue soldiers; punishments; firing squad; court martial; twentieth century

The anarchist rally, a form of popular culture (Barcelona, late 19th and early 20th century)

Antoni Dalmau i Ribalta

The historiography of the Anarchist movement in Catalonia and Spain has devoted considerable attention to the different dimensions of what has been called the «anarchist culture», this being the case of the «ateneos», the rationalist education, the press, the arts or the theatre plays. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid on political rallies, an element of social upheaval which had its own specific ritual and became decisive in raising the awareness of the labour movement. Thus, this article discusses these public events in Catalonia during the turn of the 19th century and thoroughly analyses in depth all the components they had: typology, the monitoring by the authorities, the places where they took place, the staging, the speakers, the slogans and hymns, the languages, their literary and artistic dimensions, etc. Eventually, these rituals would be modified by the influence of political uses and by the expansion of the Anarchist movement itself.

Anarchism; meeting; working-class movement; Catalonia; 19-20th century

Novecento’s female prisons: a centuries-old punitive routine

Fernando Hernández Holgado

This paper analyses in general terms the female imprisonment in Spain along the XX century, with the so-called «galera», about 1600, as a national prototype. The characteristics of this model, plainly distinguished from the male one, would be summed up in a special rigour of the imprisonment –as prefiguration of the massive use of penal punitive seclusion- and well as an extraordinary stress on moral and socio-sexual «correction» of the female offender, by means of Religious agents. The article describes that course, looking in more detail at the II Republic political reforms as well as the civil war and post-war period, with extremely high prison numbers -both of men and women- and the penal discourse of retributive and redemptive character, within the Catholicism militant tradition.

Women’s history; Franco Regime; Female Imprisonment

Acción Gallega: agrarian populism and political change in Galicia during «Restauración» 1912-1915

Miguel Villaverde

Acción Gallega was one of the attempts to unify the force of the peasant unions in Galicia, under the banners of the fight against the caciquismo and the foros. Mostly active in the provinces of Ourense and Pontevedra, its charismatic leader was paradoxically a priest, Basilio Álvarez, who launched a campaign of meetings and propaganda which shook the foundations of the political system in Galicia. However, Acción Gallega eventually failed as a result of the lack of a solid structure, its inner contradictions and the combined offensive of the Church hierarchy and the monarchist parties.

Acción Gallega; agrarian societies; leadership; caciquismo; Catholic Church; political struggle

Traitors, conformist and passionate politics. A new interpretation of interwar Europe between biography, analysis of language and political history

Steven Forti

This article attempts to address the issue of transit by political and union leaders from the left to fascist organizations in interwar Europe, paying special attention to three national areas. European historiography has tended not to treat this subject, seeing it as something rather minor and irrelevant. A detailed study of the cases of Italy, France and Spain shows, however, that the exact opposite is true. Studying their heterodox paths in political activism, through a new methodological proposal, helps us challenge some superficial and deeply held certainties in the political history and political thought of the twentieth century and allows us to talk about the issue of political passion.

Fascism; Communism; Interwar Europe; Traitors; Political History; Political Passion