N. 5 (2012)

N. 5 (2012)

Table of Contents

In memoriam

Francisco Fernández Buey

Segle XX Editorial Board

Researches and essays

The Blue Shirts and Chinese Fascism (1932-1938), 15-36

Chiao-In Chen

Joan Ventosa i Calvell, the man of the Catalan League in Burgos. The relations of the conservative Catalanists with the rebel military during the Civil War, 37-61

Borja de Riquer i Permanyer

Refugees of Spanish Republicanism in North Africa during World War II, 63-83

Pablo Escribano Miralles

FET y de las JONS in the Catalan rural world of the postwar period, 85-114

Josep Gelonch Solé

The German colony, the American consulates and the de-Nazification in Vigo and Bilbao after the Second World War, 115-128

David Messenger

Debates and dialogues

On the rear guard at war against Catalonia, 1936-1937, 131-150

José Martín Ramos, Joan Villarroya i Font

Reviews and lecture notes, 153-196

Abstracts and Keywords

The Blue Shirts and Chinese Fascism (1932-1938)

Chiao-In Chen

From the 1930s onwards the influence of the fascist phenomenon led China to develop a “native” fascism. The Blueshirts fascist Society was born as a secret group amongst the military of Guomindang´s militants between 1932 and 1938 under Chiang Kai-shek´s direction, generalissimo of the Republic of China. In 1934 the Chinese fascism formed the New Life Movement, which is an organization of fascist trend with influence from the Confucianism, aimed to attain mass uptake. This article tries to explain the development of Blueshirs (their origins, formation, ideology and their relationship with the Italian fascist regime and the Germany Nazi regime) as well as to give a reflection about the Chinese fascism in the historiography.

Chiang Kai-shek; New Life Movement; Blueshirts; Chinese fascism; Guomindang

Joan Ventosa i Calvell, the man of the Catalan League in Burgos. The relations of the conservative Catalanists with the rebel military during the Civil War

Borja de Riquer i Permanyer

This article analyses the role of the Catalan politician Joan Ventosa i Calvell in the rebel area during the Spanish Civil War. His private correspondence with the head of the Lliga Catalana, Francesc Cambó, has enabled us to find out about the nature of the three interviews with general Franco in Burgos at the beginning of the conflict (October, November and December, 1936) and how the collaboration of the Catalan right with the rebel military materialized: financial support, financial advice, contacts with international economic groups, organization of foreign propaganda, etc. The information about the plans of the military regarding the future of the Catalonia, the nature of Franco’s regime and the post-war political climate are especially interesting. The prolongation of the war, the progressive fascistization of the Franco Government and the anti-Catalanism that existed in the “national zone” resulted in the marginalization of Ventosa, who had even believed that he might become one of the strong men of the Franco Government

Civil War; Lliga Catalana; Joan Ventosa i Calvell; Francisco Franco; Francesc Cambó

Refugees of Spanish Republicanism in North Africa during World War II

Pablo Escribano Miralles

The article presented below addresses the exile of the Spanish republicanism to the French colonies of North Africa (French Morocco, Algeria and Tunis), which starts during the last weeks of the Spanish Civil War. The study analyses the living conditions of the republicans and the impacts of the changes in international politics during World War II. The article highlights the distance between the French discourse on hosting and the hospitality practices and the persistence of certain repressive practices and discourses through the different regimes.

Spanish Republicans, exile, North Africa, camps, Second World War

FET y de las JONS in the Catalan rural world of the postwar period

Josep Gelonch Solé

The paper analyses the implementation of FET y de la JONS in the in land rural area of Catalonia during the post-war period. Making use of a methodology that prioritizes a ground level perspective and uses several provincial and local documentary sources, it wonders what capability the Francoist single party had to build a political structure and to penetrate in the social body in their will to control, frame, socialize and mobilize the society. The article provides a reality of the party that substantially differs from the speeches and rhetoric of those years regarding an unequal party’s deployment in the region, very limited human and material resources and the fact that it only partially achieved some of the party’s goals and assigned functions.

Francoism; New State; FET y de las JONS; rural area; postwar; social control; framing; socialization

The German colony, the American consulates and the de-Nazification in Vigo and Bilbao after the Second World War

David Messenger

Thousands of Germans in Spain affiliated with the Nazi regime during the Second World War were subject to efforts by the U.S. Government to return them to occupied Germany afterwards. How did American agents in Spanish cities implement this policy? What was the reaction of the German colony to these efforts? Finally, how did individual Germans wanted for repatriation respond to being named by both Allied authorities and Spanish officials who ultimately decided their fate? This study explores how the repatriation of obnoxious Germans impacted American officials, Germans and the Franco regime in the two communities of Vigo and Bilbao.

Second World War; German Colony in Spain; Repatriation; Allied authorities; Vigo; Bilbao