N. 4 (2011)

N. 4 (2011)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

The appropriation of the memory of the Jewish volunteers of the Spanish Civil War by the Zionist establishment, 13-34

Raanan Rein

Mission Impossible: The Republican Embassy in Washington (1936-1949), 35-55

Soledad Fox Maura

Neighborhood movements in Rome during the Italian protest cycle (1968-1976), 57-77

Noemi Alonso García

From university campus to temple of marginality. Social change in Spanish prisons during the political transition, 79-106

César Lorenzo Rubio

Holocaust, historiography and national identity in Germany (1945-1990), 107-128

Miquel de Toro

Debates and dialogues

Where the air turns: reflections on the nationalization in Spain, 131-142

Fernando Molina, Miguel Cabo

The three spheres. Towards a model of nationalization in Spain, 143-160

Alejandro Quiroga

Historiography and nationalization in Spain. Final reflections, 161-169

Fernando Molina, Miguel Cabo

Reviews and lecture notes, 173-209

Abstracts and Keywords

The appropriation of the memory of the Jewish volunteers of the Spanish Civil War by the Zionist establishment

Raanan Rein

This article analyzes the changing attitudes of the Israeli authorities towards the Jewish veterans of the International Brigades, most of them Communist. Following a brief overview of Jewish participation in general and Jewish Palestinian participation in particular in the Spanish Civil War, we focus our attention first on the initial reactions to the returning volunteers and then on two major events in the process of memory appropriation and gradual inclusion of these fighters in the Israeli national narrative: the 1972 Tel Aviv conference of Jewish fighters in Spain, sponsored by the Histadrut, and the 1986 speech by Israeli president Chaim Herzog on the 50th anniversary of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Once the fighters’ documents were deposited in the archives of the Israel military in the 1990s, the process was complete. Now they could be portrayed as Jewish heroes, national patriots fighting to protect their people and their homeland, Israel.

International Brigades; Jews in the Spanish Civil War; Israeli pantheon of war heroes; Israeli national narrative; Naftali Botwin battalion

Mission Impossible: The Republican Embassy in Washington (1936-1949)

Soledad Fox Maura

When the Spanish Civil War broke out, the Spanish Republican intellectual and politician Fernando de los Ríos was sent to Washington as Spain’s ambassador. In this role, he worked to publicize the cause of the Spanish Republic to politicians and the American public, and involved people throughout the United States in fundraising for Spain. His ambition was to convince the American government to abandon their «non-intervention» policy and sell arms to the Spanish government. This was a very clear goal for de los Ríos, and it seemed logical that the United States —a democracy, after all— would eventually come to realize the error of «non-intervention». For three long years the ambassador thought he was on the verge of achieving a reversal in US policy towards Spain. It seemed that President Roosevelt and other American politicians sympathized with the Republic; it seemed that the news of German and Italian participation in the war against the Republic had shocked Americans. Even the First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt berated her husband over his policy in Spain. During three years Fernando de los Ríos did his best to plead the Republican cause, and the American government’s consistent response was to be understanding, polite, and immovable. This article analyzes the obstacles de los Ríos faced, and situates them in the cultural and political context of the US in the 1930s.

Fernando de los Ríos; Spanish Republic; Embassy of Spain in Washington; Exile; International relations

Neighborhood movements in Rome during the Italian protest cycle (1968-1976)

Noemi Alonso García

The article undertakes a study of the neighbourhood movements that took place in Rome between 1968 and 1976. The features of these movements are firstly tackled, describing the changes in their theoretical formulations, their claims, their organizational structures and, above all, their ways of action. On the other hand, we also try to outline an explicative model that takes into account the possible factors conditioning the rising, decline and features assumed by the studied neighborhood movements. We put a special stress, in particular, in dynamic variables of the social and political context, such as the political changes taking place during the seventies, those featuring the situation of the mid seventies, the rising of a protest cycle in the Italian society, and the behaviour evolution, of the political counterparts and allies, towards these neighborhood protests.

Collective action; protest cycle; political changes; neighborhood movement; Roma

From university campus to temple of marginality. Social change in Spanish prisons during the political transition

César Lorenzo Rubio

At the end of Franco regime, the imprisonment of dictatorship’s opponents became one of the clearest symbols of its totalitarian character. However, inside prison, political prisoners resisted by increasing their political activity. From 1977, as these prisoners were released thanks to amnesties, common criminals took over the mobilization and gain prominence in claiming their rights. In response to the serious problems that ordinary prisoners had revealed, the state approved a prison legislation reform, although it did not result in an improvement of the situation. On the contrary, during the first years of democracy, prisons were marked by material shortages, skyrocketing prison population and the perpetuation of a new type of interpersonal violence.

Franco regime; transition to democracy; mobilization; prison; violence

Holocaust, historiography and national identity in Germany (1945-1990)

Miquel de Toro

Since 1945, memory of Holocaust has marked virtually every aspect of German society, including also the historians who have seen their scientific production marked by these events and the way they have treated. Therefore it is considered particularly interesting to analyze the relation between memory and historiography and the formation of German national identity with special attention to the period of division into two Germanys, so different and, at the same time, so similar in certain aspects. In both cases, the confrontation with the past has reached almost obsessive levels, even after reunification. If we accept the fact that the relevance of the past turned the history into an ideological minefield marked by political controversy, with very different degrees of distortion unconscious or deliberate, we must accept that historians have also played an important role in this process. History of Germany presents unusual challenges to scholars seeking to explain the complex relationship between politics and memory, challenges that have been marked by unconventional relationships with their national past. In this context, historiography has played a changing role that we analyze here.

National-socialism; Historiography; Collective memory; FRA; DRA