N. 2 (2009)
Table of Contents
Researches and essays
Joan Villarroya i Font
Debates and dialogues
Álvaro Soto Carmona
What transition was there? The crisis of the Franco regime, the development of the reform and the origins of the Spanish political rupture, 153-164
Reviews and lecture notes, 167-205
Abstracts and Keywords
Nation and identity in Spain. Some reflections
The territorial model set out in the Spanish Constitution, based on a contradiction in practice if not in the complementarities between regional and state government, has forged new political regionalism on the one hand, and almost regional nationalism on the other. Nevertheless, its citizens, according to polls, consider themselves Spanish to greater or lesser degrees, including the majority of Basques and Catalans, and feel comfortable in their dual or multiple identities. However, it should be emphasized that the problem of Spain as a state or nation-state is no exception, since the configuration of the nation and the state in different parts of Europe is changing at a dizzying pace. It is increasingly under the influence of globalization and a reconfiguration of the international political map towards a new multipolarity. It is possible that shared citizenship may in future replace shared sovereignty at the heart of the relationship between states and regions, although the predictions about the future are increasingly risky.
Identity; nation-state; Spain; region; territorial model; Europe; globalization
Milestones in a history of intellectuals
Since Zola turned to a newspaper and Weber asked his listeners to imagine a world without newspapers, the fate of the intellectual and traits that define him would be linked to his ability to make an impact and gain publicity using the press, a historically privileged place in the public presence of the intellectual. The figure of the great intellectual that emerged at the end of the nineteenth century was made possible because the people of the liberal revolutions became the masses, which had just started to read. This was a time when entering higher education institutions was reserved for a tiny minority, while beneath them were the masses that wanted to read but still lacked a public voice, in contrast to the minority that knew how to write and did not stop talking. However, the protests of the Spanish intellectuals were born in the twentieth century. Here is a historical journey about the changing attitudes and roles of the group of intellectuals from the era of the emergence of this figure to the present day. It finishes by reflecting upon what happened to this creature, which emerged with its own name in the late nineteenth century, while in the late twentieth century there has been endless talk about the silence and the end of intellectuals.
Intellectuals; culture; liberal revolution; public opinion; press
Tourism, modernization and national idiosyncrasy in twentieth-century Spain
This article explores the role of tourism in Spanish cultural and political history in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although Spain developed moderndomestic leisure practices in the nineteenth century, tourism promoters were dismayed by the small numbers of foreign visitors they received. By the early twentieth century, the project of developing a receptive tourism industry became a major component of a broader program of national «regeneration». After the Second World War, when the Franco dictatorship faced international ostracism, foreign tourism became an important form of international relations. In the subsequent three decades, tourism became arguably the Franco regime’s most important political and economic good until problems of overbuilding and corruption ended the euphoria of Spain’s so-called «tourist miracle».
Spanish culture; political history; international relations; Franco dictatorship; tourism
The disorientation of the Spanish press in the face of the fall of Mussolini
The Spanish press, docile instrument of Francoism, fully refl ects —between 1942 and 1945— all the embarrassment of a regime that loses, with the collapse of Fascism, its great political reference. The confusion of newspapers facing the Italian military and political catastrophe, after years of praising Mussolini’s system, expresses itself in often contradictory reports and articles: important events such as the dismissal of the Duce and the formation of Badoglio’s Government, the armistice and the creation of the Social Republic, are objects of radically different analysis. Thereby, we can notice an absolutely original aspect of the press in these years: its lack of uniformity, even in the framework of a general evolution of its judgment about Fascist experience.
Fascism; Francoism; Press; World War II; Italian Social Republic; Mussolini
Military against the July 1936 coup
Joan Villarroya i Font
The article deals with those members of the armed forces that opposed the coup d’état and lost their lives as a result. Some did so for ideological reasons, others simply because they believed that their duty was to obey the orders of the legitimate government. There were senior and junior offi cers from the army, navy, civil guard and assault units that did not hesitate to risk their lives in defense of the orders issued by the government of the Second Republic.
Military; army; coup d’état; Spanish Second Republic
The new historiography of the Cold War
A simplistic view of historiography has tended to show the Cold War as a confrontation between «good» and «bad» in the style of a Western. However, a new historiography of the Cold War is emerging that seeks to explain things differently, although its scope is still relatively limited. The most interesting part of what it bring mostly concerns the nature of this war, looking for its internal logic from the combination of political and economic factors behind it, to better understand their persistence. The history of over sixty years should be considered in terms of political causes that are much more complex than the clash between East and West, between really existing socialism and devious democracy. The Cold War accomplished, in the internal structures of the two opposing sides, the essential function of maintaining social order and controlling dissent. To explain the relationship between the Cold War and the maintenance of the current capitalist economic system will force us to look very carefully to a past that contains many of the keys to the disturbing situation in which we live today.
Cold War; historiography; capitalism; socialism; world politics