N. 13 (2020)

N. 13 (2020)

Table of Contents

In memoriam

Santos Juliá in memoriam, 1-2

José Álvarez Junco

Nota editorial: Nova Etapa, 3-6

Researches and essays

Becoming party communists: the communist-syndicalists and the origins of the PCE in Catalonia, 1922-1924, 7-32

Arturo Zoffmann Rodríguez

Women of the PSUC in wartimes (1936-1939), 33-50

Cèlia Cañellas, Rosa Toran

Land in common. The agrarian collectivisation in Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War, 51-71

Guillem Puig Vallverdú

Autarchy in Spanish Guinea. An approach to the policies of profitability and economic coercion of Franco’s colonialism (1936-1959), 72-93

Celeste Muñoz Martínez

The appeals to the past during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39 or the impossibility of a neutral history, 94-122

José María Gómez Herráez

Italian agrarian reform seen from Spain (1918-1953). A critical comment, 123-145

Sergio Riesco

Dollars for the Federalization of Europe, 146-165

Víctor Gavín

Women’s Archives, Generations and Research: new questions stemming from the History of Feminisms in Italy, 166-189

Elena Petricola

Photography an instrument of power: a historical approach, 190-212

Enric Berenguer Garcia

The Making of the Working Class in Pamplona Under Francoism. New Approaches to Navarra Historiography of the Working Class, 213-237

Nerea Pérez Ibarrola

Barcelona City Council during the Transition: the ruptures of municipalism in the democratic construction, 238-260

David Moreno Muñoz

The Thorns of the Rose. The Hard Historical Path of Socialism in Catalonia (1945-2010), 261-279

Jaume Muñoz Jofre

Debates and dialogues, 280-322

Reviews and lecture notes, 323-407

Abstracts and Keywords

Becoming party communists: the communist-syndicalists and the origins of the PCE in Catalonia, 1922-1924

Arturo Zoffmann Rodríguez

In its early years the Russian Revolution became a beacon flare for the Iberian labour movement, particularly for the anarchists of the Catalan CNT. Paradoxically however, the communist movement that crystallised in Spain in the 1920s was dramatically impotent and isolated. This weakness was especially notorious in Catalonia. Yet here a small tendency of partisans of Bolshevism did emerge within CNT milieux, which developed an original strategy connected with kindred groups in other countries. They sought to win over the anarcho-syndicalist rank-and-file and recast communism from Barcelona, keeping the official PCE at arm’s length. However, in a context of defeat and stagnation for labour in Spain and Catalonia, the so-called communist-syndicalist faction failed in its endeavour to conquer the CNT and reluctantly joined the PCE in late 1924. Nevertheless, they maintained an independent élan that helps explain why most of these militants sided with the heterodox, anti-Stalinist, and Catalan-minded Workers and Peasants’ Bloc in 1931. This article traces the first steps of these pioneers of Catalan communism in 1921- 24, using new sources from the Soviet archives that shed light on the origins and evolution of this group.

Keywords: communism, anarchism, Catalanism, Russian Revolution, PCE, Bolshevik triennium

Women of the PSUC in wartimes (1936-1939)

Cèlia Cañellas, Rosa Toran

The will to win the war propels the PSUC to value the role of women in their tasks of helping the war front and doing propaganda for the resistance, this also implied their incorporation to work in positions previously restricted to men. Claims from the militants as well as self-criticism from the leaders, due to their lack of recognition, facilitated a progressive assumption of responsibilities at the party and youth levels besides visibility in propaganda events; nevertheless their own comrades were reluctant given their lack of preparation and the fear of them being competent in the jobs.

Keywords: Treball Newspaper; PSUC; Female Militancy: Activism, Emancipation; Militias; Work in the Rear-guard, Women’s Union, Antifascism.

Land in common. The agrarian collectivisation in Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War

Guillem Puig Vallverdú

The Rear-guard organization became a basic component from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, and the control of production one of the principal aims of the Republican bloc. Based on expropriation, in the Republican rear-guard different ordering forms were proposed. One of them was collectivisation, a model founded in collective production and management, which sought for an egalitarian society. During the war, these organizations expressed in urban areas of Catalonia with a major industry concentration. In spite of this, they also revealed themselves in the rest of the agrarian areas, where there had been a significant peasant movement the previous years. The resistances and supports, that it emerged in front of collectivisation, shaped the Catalan rear-guard, as well as the political speeches and action of the anti-fascist formations.

Keywords: Spanish Civil War; Collectivisations; Catalonia; Peasantry, Agrarian expropriations.

Autarchy in Spanish Guinea. An approach to the policies of profitability and economic coercion of Franco’s colonialism (1936-1959)

Celeste Muñoz Martínez

The African colonies under Spanish occupation and their role in Francoist economy, especially regarding autarchy, have generally been absent in the narratives about the dictatorship. This article proposes an approach to these issues from the analysis of the profitability of assimilation and punitive policies in the Guinean territory between 1939 and 1959. To this end, we focus on the study of territorial productivity indices, relating them to the intensification of social control exercised by the Patronato de Indígenas, the judicial system, the penitentiary institutions and through forced labour, offering conclusions that link the modes of production and the modes of punishment of the colonial regime.

Keywords: Equatorial Guinea; Francoism; Patronato de Indígenas; Judicialization; Forced Labour; “Braceros”.

The appeals to the past during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39 or the impossibility of a neutral history

José María Gómez Herráez

The Spanish War of 1936-1939 did not simply mean a propaganda orientation of history. The observation of the past served to stimulate in different ways the spirit of combat, resistance and internal collaboration. However also the socio-economic and institutional transformations in each area influenced the selection of themes, the omissions and the interpretations. In addition, there were variations depending on the medium of expression. This review contextualizes and comments on the perspectives followed in works grouped into four categories. Three of these correspond to the republican zone: texts of liberal-democratic inspiration, of type “workerist” type and of “catalanist” type. In the area controlled by the rebels, we present interventions in a course for teachers.

Keywords: Spanish Civil War – Ideologies – Historiography – History Teaching – Public Use of History.

Italian agrarian reform seen from Spain (1918-1953). A critical comment.

Sergio Riesco

The existing historiography tends to frame the agrarian reform programs in two great historical moments: the period after the First World War and during the 1960s within the parameters of the “Green Revolution.” Based on a certain recent bibliography, a critical review of the same view is proposed from the Spanish case. In Mediterranean Europe, some agrarian reform programs were born in democracy but were executed, in a very different way from how they were designed, during a dictatorship. There are certain parallels between the cases of Italy and Spain, whose agrarian structures were relatively similar, between a north where land ownership was more distributed and there was greater industrialization and a south where large property was predominant. In some way, political regimes, in democracy and dictatorship, had to respond to social demands. The role played by the large landowners was central to the success or failure of the reform programs, or agrarian counter-reform? However, changes and continuities can be found among those that were conditioning reform policies.

Keywords: Agrarian reform – Fascism – Interwar period – Francoism – Italy – Spain

Dollars for the Federalization of Europe

Víctor Gavín

During the first decade after the end of World War II, the United States firmly believed that Western Europe could reorganize itself politically, economically, and socially as a federation following the American model. To that end, they were willing to invest the money necessary to make it happen. While a program like the Marshall Plan is widely known, the dollars that were channelled through organizations that involved civil society such as the European Movement are less so. Organizations like the American Committee on United Europe (ACUE) were the bridge between the United States and Europe for US dollars.

Keyswords: ACUE, European Movement, Integration, Federation, Europe

Women’s Archives, Generations and Research: new questions stemming from the History of Feminisms in Italy

Elena Petricola

Since Seventies, the Italian women’s movement promoted the birth of archives, libraries and cultural centres. Thanks to this presence, the history of feminisms began to be documented together with the promotion and the circulation of women’s history, offering support to this field of research. In the next decades, the activity and the presence of these organizations increasingly spread, and some of them got more institutionalised. The availability of documents increased as well, thanks to the collection of new sources, like interviews, and to the donations of personal archives or single, groups and formal or informal organizations collections of documents, building physical and virtual archives. This process has been accompanied by many changes in the research field, involving research questions as well. In Italy, like elsewhere, women’s history and gender studies coexist, opening to new methodological issues. Moreover, the different points of view in the research, and particularly in the history of feminisms, are embodied in two, and quite three, generations of scholars. In this contribution, I will trace some aspects of the relationship among generations, research and archives in the last twenty years, using some examples of the production in the field of the history of Italian feminisms: which methodological questions and historiographic innovations they have introduced, which questions they asked archives and how archives replied.

Keywords: Women’s Archives; Generations; History of Feminisms; Methodological Questions

Photography an instrument of power: a historical approach

Enric Berenguer Garcia

To suggest that photography is one of the advances brought about by the Industrial Revolution seems obvious, but not only do we have to see it as a result of “modernity”, it is the result of the decantation of knowledge about the physical world that had long been before.

Since its appearance, two aspects of Photography have been considered, its use as a way of remembering the events that took place, and its value as a document, in the sense of testifying to a reality at a specific time. Both have served to turn it into a control tool.

Keywords: Industrial Revolution; Optics; Chemistry; Light; Documentation; Control

The Making of the Working Class in Pamplona Under Francoism. New Approaches to Navarra Historiography of the Working Class

Nerea Pérez Ibarrola

Navarra historiography on the working class movement during the Francoist era was developed over the 1990s by researchers focusing on labour unions, associated policies employed and on conflict. Little research has been carried out using new approaches introduced in the decade 2000-2010 which contributed to the opening of new lines of investigation in Spanish working class historiography. This paper presents the results of research that primarily focuses on exploring these new lines of investigation and raise new questions that contribute to the renewal of workers historiography in Navarra. This centres the historical analysis of the workers identities and addresses their conditions and the way these identities emerge, develop and act.

Keywords: Navarra, Francoism, Working Class Movement, Workers Identities, Historiography

Barcelona City Council during the Transition: the ruptures of municipalism in the democratic construction

David Moreno Muñoz

This article aims to set out the main points of the doctoral thesis “When Barcelona City Council was ours. The first democratic city council after Franco’s death (1979-1983)”. Through the study of the archives of Barcelona City Council, personal interviews and documentation from many public and private collections, this paper analyses the main points of the policy of the Catalan capital’s City Council, from the pre-democratic period of Josep Maria Socías until the end of the first democratic government since the recovery of democracy, formed by socialists, communists, nationalists and republicans (1979-1983). We will study and analyse the changes and continuities in a context of transition and democratic construction, where the city councils and Barcelona at the head will have a determining role in the formation of the new democratic regime.

Keywords: Transition, Municipalism, Democratic City, Democratic Rupture, Political Parties

The Thorns of the Rose. The Hard Historical Path of Socialism in Catalonia (1945-2010)

Jaume Muñoz Jofre

Although the objective of the formation of a unitary socialist party in Catalonia was among the founding aspirations of many of the forces attached to this ideology that emerged in this country since 1908, it was not until seven decades later that this project was it became a reality with the creation of the Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya (1978). During all this time, the obstacles that this ideological space had to face were multiple in Catalonia, both due to external factors and factors associated with the internal dynamics of its various actors. This article studies the tortuous path followed by the various socialist families in Catalonia during these first seventy years of history, focusing on the evolution of this political space –starting with the creation of the Socialist Movement of Catalonia (1945) and ending by briefly analysing the internal and institutional life of the PSC between 1978 and 2010. We will see, then, how the Catalan socialists went from being a minority option but with very influential representatives on the whole of the political life of the anti-Franco world to become, from 1977 onwards, key agents in the making of democratic Spain at the municipal, state and, finally, regional levels.

Keywords: Socialism; Anti-francoism; Transition to Democracy; Catalonia; Federalism