N. 1 (2008)

N. 1 (2008)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

Emptiness of memory. Uses and abuses of history in public life, 13-36

Stefano Pivato

Pierre Mendès France and the end of federal Europe (1954), 37-55

Víctor Gavín Munté

Crisis, agony and end of the liberal monarchy (1914-1923), 57-82

Francisco Romero Salvadó

Diplomacy and repression. The Spanish-French Persecution of the Republican Exile (1937-1951), 83-104

Jordi Guixé Coromines

Notes on the study of female collective action in Madrid in the first third of the 20th century, 105-124

Marta del Moral Vargas

Debates and dialogues

Historians and memory. The fruits of a troubled relationship, 127-140

Francisco Erice Sebares

In the principle it was the memory, 141-153

Jordi Casassas

About memory abuses. Brief punctuations to Jordi Casassas, 155-162

Francisco Erice Sebares

Reviews and lecture notes

Reviews, 165-191

Lecture notes, 193-208

Abstracts and Keywords

Emptiness of memory. Uses and abuses of history in public life

Stefano Pivato

At present we attend to a distancing process regarding the historical knowledge. The old idea about studying the past to understand the present has been replaced by a vulgar and instrumental knowledge of the history for the political uses in the present, specially accentuated dynamics in Italy. The appearance of new political parties —which takes advantage of current generation’s memory’s emptiness— is associated to the segmentation of the «historical memory» by means of a not scientific review of the Italian History. The result of rewriting the past of Italy, by the centred-right wing parties hand, is a shared memory where the fascism remains absolved and antifascism is despised.

History; Historical memory; Politics; Italy; Fascism; Antifascism

Pierre Mendès France and the end of federal Europe (1954)

Víctor Gavín Munté

Pierre Mendès France, chosen prime minister of France in June, 1954, had to carry out an ungrateful task, being it an about turn in the European politics of the country, but to which he devoted himself with full conviction: to change the course of the integration of Europe started with the Schuman Declaration of 1950 removing it from the theoretical target to construct an European federation, to which the project of the European Defence Community seemed to lead, and establishing that the states continued to be the key piece of the European order and that the integration had to strengthen but never debilitate them.

European Integration; France; 4th Republic; Pierre Mendès France; EDC; European Defence Community; Federal Republic of Germany; Konrad Adenauer; Paul-Henri Spaak; Federalism; Winston Churchill; United Kingdom; NATO

Crisis, agony and end of the liberal monarchy (1914-1923)

Francisco Romero Salvadó

This essay examines the final years of the Liberal Monarchy in Spain and the reasons for its crisis, agony and demise. It explores an era of revolution and reaction that started in the years 1916-17. This was a period during which in the face of unprecedented mass social protest and political mobilization, Spain’s governing elites were unable to retain their leadership of political society and were finally toppled by a military coup in 1923. The central focus of this study is on the increasingly violent social conflict and political turmoil that gathered momentum after the First World War and whose final outcome would be the civil war a generation later.

Liberalism; Social violence; Revolution; Reaction; Labour movement; Praetorian intervention

Diplomacy and repression. The Spanish-French Persecution of the Republican Exile, 1937-1951

Jordi Guixé Coromines

Diplomàcia i repressió is a research text that analyses the State, police and unofficial repression of exiles of the Second Spanish Republic in France during three important wars, the Spanish Civil War, the Second World War and the Cold War. The unofficial strategies and diplomatic agreements resulted in dark and sinister police policies that decisively affected the lives of thousands of people. This was a political repression and this work analyses this continuous repression from the Civil War to the «witch hunt» operation in France in 1950. The research is based on original documents stored in the national and ministry archives of France and Spain, as well as police documentation and files on police and military repression. The persecution and repression of republican exiles employed all kinds of casuistries and affected everyone from senior officials to the most humble exiles who were deported and exterminated. The Spanish and French states played their part in the entire process and the different diplomatic and geostrategic expectations have traumatically marked our history and our societies. The work with the primary sources enables us to see that these repressive policies are not remote, and are in no way anecdotal or trivial. They were policies —albeit erroneous— which were dictated in violation of all respect for human and citizens’ rights. In addition to the facts, the article provides a European insight into the Franco’s Regime’s hard, fanatical and obsessed «extraterritorial repression» of the republican exile.

Civil War; Franco Dictatorship; Exile; External Repression; Diplomatic Relations

Notes on the study of female collective action in Madrid in the first third of the 20th century

Marta del Moral Vargas

This article presents the objectives, hypothesis, sources and some theoretical premises with whom I attempt to analyze Feminine Collective Actions in the first third of the XXth century in Madrid. This research belongs to Social History, and especially, it contributes to Gender Studies. Although it’s a Women’s History research, it adds Gender Relations as a transverse category.

Gender; Madrid; Feminine Collective Action; Partially Transgressing Actions; Revolutionary Actions

Historians and memory. The fruits of a troubled relationship

Francisco Erice Sebares

Despite the different and generally legitimate forecasts which a large number of historians produce with respect to the expansion in studies on memory, the notion of collective memory and the investigations associated with it have established an extensive and well-established current of studies which crystallized during the decade of the eighties last century. The different problems for historians which the current social demand for collective memory in almost all societies and the complexity of the concept itself do not appear to be sufficient for it to be rejected by historians. On the contrary, the recovery of civic and social concerns by academic history on the one hand, and on the other, the use at the same time of the above mentioned concept using a critical treatment, may help to make historical material from the demands of today’s memory.

Collective memory; Historical memory; History; Historiography; Social sciences; Policy; Citizenship

In the principle it was the memory

Jordi Casassas

The paradigm of “historical memory”, in line with the fragmentation of the historical discourse, has steadily been imposed everywhere since the decade of the eighties until it has become a cultural factor. Besides the evaluations made, one cannot leave out the coincidence of a contemporary crisis in Western civil consciousness with a true extension of the public use of history with the leading role of the memory in this, to the point that the former has been supplanted by the latter. It is however necessary to warn everyone that mythification, induced amnesia or the unrealistic manipulation by those in power or the victors affects both history and memory in equal ways.

Memory; Historical memory; History; Historiographical structuralism; Historicism; Cultural factor; Policy