N. 10 (2017)

N. 10 (2017)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

Lights and Shadows in “Homage to Catalonia”, 1-29

Paul Preston

The architects at the end of the Franco period, between the professional crisis and the political-social commitment,  31-48

Céline Vaz

A comparison of the management of the traumatic past under the socialist mandate in Spain (1982-1996) and in Greece (1981-1989), 49-69

Magdalini Fytili

The role of land occupations in the MST structuring process (1984- 1995), 71-89

Rose Elke Debiasi

The Rwandan diaspora in Belgium. Political actors in popular mobilizations, 91-107

Firmin Dusabe

Debates and dialogues

The past present of the revolution. One hundred years after the Russian Revolution, 109-127

Juan Andrade, Guillem Martínez

Reviews and lecture notes, 129-197

Abstracts and Keywords

Lights and Shadows in “Homage to Catalonia”

Paul Preston

Orwell’s “Homage to Catalonia” is almost certainly the most sold and most read book about the Spanish Civil War. However, its political analysis and prediction is deeply flawed by his acceptance of the partisan views of anarchist and POUM comrades as well as ignorance of the wider context. Yet the book’s influence on perceptions of the Spanish Civil War is massive. There are many reasons for suggesting that should not be seen as the definitive interpretation of Republican defeat in the Spanish Civil War. Alongside many examples of ignorance and error, there are also some significant omissions.

George Orwell; Spanish Civil War

The architects at the end of the Franco period, between the professional crisis and the political-social commitment

Céline Vaz

From the end of the 1960s, architects appear as the spearhead of urban criticism in Spain. They offer an emblematic example of the role in the Spanish transition of «New professionals» (architects, doctors, lawyers, etc.) who shared youth, politicization and commitment for the general interest. This commitment was partly explained by generational and political causes, but these explanations cannot be examined independently of their own professional problems. In this context, the economic and social transformations of “Desarrollismo”, and the real estate boom that accompanies it, will bring prosperity to the professional group, given the peak of commissions that it means. However, it will also exacerbate professional problems that contribute to the loss of prestige of the profession. Given this, several professional sectors, especially the younger ones who suffer more from these problems and reject it with greater force, will impose the need to renew the social mission of the profession putting it at the service of society. This article aims to demonstrate, through the example of the architects, the interest of a long-term study -from the postwar period- of certain groups better understand the causes of the political and social opposition to the dictatorship.

Francoism; Urbanism; Architects; Political-Social Commitment

A comparison of the management of the traumatic past under the socialist mandate in Spain (1982-1996) and in Greece (1981-1989)

Magdalini Fytili

This article explores the ways in which the two government socialist parties, in Spain (PSOE, 1982-1996) and in Greece (PASOK, 1982-1989), have interpreted and dealt with the traumatic past of the civil war and its consequences in each country. It attempts to demonstrate that the construction of a political identity based on the past or on future, as well as the different political strategies constitute factors which determine, to a large extent, the ways of dealing with the past. Likewise, the different ways of dealing with the past can lead to the neutralization or the reactivation of the political mechanisms of the traumatic memory.

collective memory; politics of memory; political identity; Spanish civil war; Greek civil war; socialist parties; PSOE; PASOK

The role of land occupations in the MST structuring process (1984- 1995)

Rose Elke Debiasi

This article analysed the transformations performed in (and by) the Movement of Rural Landless Workers (MST, in Brazil) from the definition of the strategic and multiform nature of land occupation, such as form of struggle, instrument for the expansion of the Movement, formative space for militancy and element of distinction of other political organizations. Through the specialized literature and a series of interviews with the actors of this process, leaders who formulated and carried out countless land occupations during the 1980s, especially in the Brazilian Northeast, the conflicts, the deliberations, are discussed the relationship with the State and the material and symbolic achievements resulting from land occupations in the national territory.

MST; Land occupation; Militancy

The Rwandan diaspora in Belgium. Political actors in popular mobilizations

Firmin Dusabe

Rwandans living abroad, especially in Belgium, are grouped and divided into different cultural associations, political groups and NGOs depending on their ethnic origin. This division reproduces the divisions that existed at the time of the Tutsi genocide that took place in 1994. The fracture between ethnic groups is visible both in organizations and associations, which makes the notion of reconciliation still unrealistic for Rwandans seeing from the outside. Finally, the lack of a democratic political culture that may generate dialogue, reconciliation and cooperation from a position of ideological plurality and Rwanda’s multiculturalism threatens peaceful coexistence.

Rwandan diaspora; Belgium; transnational mobilization; civilian society; ethnic cleavage

The past present of the revolution. One hundred years after the Russian Revolution

Juan Andrade, Guillem Martínez

The subject chosen this time for the “debates and dialogues” section is that of the Russian Revolution. Throughout 2017, on the occasion of its centenary, many congresses have been organized at both national and international level. A large number of books have also appeared in the Spanish publishing market, more than fifty. It is true that, taking into account the authors and titles, the published works have a highly varied character. Thus, it includes re-editing of classical books written by protagonists of the revolution, historiographic works published before and which have been recovered nowadays, as well as the emergence of new research on this subject.

We thank the historian Juan Andrade and the journalist Guillem Martínez –co-editor the first and co-author the second of one of the books published on the occasion of the centenary of the revolution– who have accepted our proposal to lead this dialogue in Segle XX. It seems to us that the result is an exhilarating exchange of questions and reflections on the past and present of the revolution.

N. 11 (2018)

N. 11 (2018)

Table of Contents

In Memoriam

Josep Fontana, 1

Researches and essays

The 1st of May in Catalonia. The Eight Hours and the International Day of Work, 3-27

Maria Rodríguez

Calm before the storm? The process of de-liberalization in Spain in the first third of the 20th century. Approach to the roots of a European phenomenon, 29-49

Joan Pubill Brugués

The Frase Quincenal in the Documentary Center of Historical Memory: propaganda and ideology during the Franco’s dictatorship, 51-65

José Hernández Luis

Spanish emigration to Europe through cinema: between reality and fiction, 67-89

Marta Piñol Lloret

The showdown of 1976. Tarragona mobilizations on the Spanish context, 91-118

Cristian Ferrer González

Debates and dialogues

Visions on economics, politics and science in Franco’s regime, 121-189

Carlos Barciela, Lino Camprubí

Dialogues on the History of Contemporary Spain, 190-212

José Álvarez Junco, Adrian Shubert

Reviews and lecture notes, 213-290

Abstracts and Keywords

The 1st of May in Catalonia. The Eight Hours and the International Day of Work

Maria Rodríguez

The First of May was approved by an International Workers Congress, which aim was a global public affirmation of workers as workers, without distinctions nor ideologies or nationals. For this purpose, it was decided to present the same reclamation: an international labour legislation with the eight hours as a leitmotiv. But there were differences within working class movement and with workers and the society around them. All this shape the history of the worker’s movement and the First of May.

First of May; working class; associations; Marxist Socialism; Anarchism; eight hours day; general strike; claiming movement; 19th Century; 20th Century

Calm before the storm? The process of de-liberalization in Spain in the first third of the 20th century. Approach to the roots of a European phenomenon

Joan Pubill Brugués

The aim of this paper is to explore the spirit of violence that preceded the crisis of 1930s from a transnational approach. With this aim, the paper seeks to highlight the subversive explicit and inexplicit manners against the liberal State that existed in the first half of the 20th century, examining the lerrouxist populism, the lockout organized by the Catalan federation of the Employers’ organization in 1919 and the social struggles known as gunmanism. The analysis proposes to examine the formation of a non-conformist political culture through the process of deliberalization of some members of the right-wing political space, a proposal that could help in the comprehension of the origins of the counterrevolution in Spain.

Spanish nationalism; violence; counterrevolution; political cultures; deliberalization

The Frase Quincenal in the Documentary Center of Historical Memory: propaganda and ideology during the Franco’s dictatorship

José Hernández Luis

Between 1940 and 1951 the Provincial Delegation of Popular Education of FET y de las JONS in Barcelona published La Frase Quincenal (The Fornightly Sentence), a series of posters that contain slogans and allusive graphic motifs. Eighty-four copies are currently kept in the Documentation Centre of Historical Memory (Salamanca), three of them previously unpublished, which show us the basic ideological features of the Franco regime and the changes experienced by the propaganda as a result of international developments. This article describes this fond, as well as outlining its historiographic potential.

Franco Regime; Ideology; Propaganda; Posters

Spanish emigration to Europe through cinema: between reality and fiction

Marta Piñol Lloret

The cinematographic documents provide important information about the Spanish economic emigration towards Europe that took place between the fifties and the seventies. Therefore, it is relevant to study how the Spanish cinema produced at that time reflected this issue, considering the role played by the censorship and how the films were received by the emigrated community itself. Also, it is very valuable to compare the image that it offers with that proposed by dissenting films made outside the industry and the representations that gave the various cinematographies of the countries that hosted them.

Cinema and Ideology; Audiovisual representations; Spanish emigration; Spanish Cinema; European Cinema

The showdown of 1976. Tarragona mobilizations on the Spanish context

Cristian Ferrer González

After Franco’s death on November 1975 la most mobilized part of the opposition struggled to break with his political regime, which seek for its survive beyond the dictator’s life. Social and political conflicts, which became the preferred model to defy the regime, achieved a huge intensity in the main industrial and urban regions of Spain. Along the dictatorship, the province of Tarragona was secondary in terms of social mobilization. Although, political opportunities generated by the conflictive context stablished the conditions for a general strike in the local level. The attempt was a failure on its terms but it supposed the highest peak of mobilization in the city during the dictatorship. Its political consequences became obvious when three city councilors resigned and the Civil Governor was dismissed. The conflict hardness was only exceeded by and unprecedented police violence, which clearly conditioned the far-reaching political showdown against the Francoism on 1976.

Anti-Francoism, general strike; democratic breakdown; labour movement

 

N. 12 (2019)

N. 12 (2019)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

On the Mirror of the Sphinx. United Kingdom and Egypt Setting the Foundations for the United States Capitalist Expansion in the Beginnings of the XX Century in the Caribbean, 1-45

Gabriel Alemán Rodríguez

Historical keys to rethink the theoretical foundation of argentine national identity. Ezequiel Ramos Mejía and Hipólito Irigoyen’s patriotic projects (1908-1919) 46-63

Cielo Zaidenwerg

The democratic city, the neighborhood movement, the Barcelona Model and citizien participation: one state of the question and proposal for analysis, 64-84

Arnau López Espinosa

Working class and transition: a vision from the factory,  85-109

Marta Mulero

Rereading Taula de Canvi: A bewildered left within a country in transition, 110-138

Francesc Vilanova

Debates and dialogues

Without a future there is no past. Dialogue around the teaching of History and citizenship, 139-163

Fernando Hernández Sánchez, Alessandro Pes

Reviews and lecture notes164-206

 

Abstracts and Keywords

On the Mirror of the Sphinx. United Kingdom and Egypt Setting the Foundations for the United States Capitalist Expansion in the Beginnings of the XX Century in the Caribbean

Gabriel Alemán Rodríguez

From the Spanish-American War in 1898 until beyond World War I, the United States undertook an expansionist crusade unprecedented in the history of the American continent. The new power that disputed global hegemony militarily occupied Puerto Rico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Panama, Nicaragua, and Mexico, paving the way for the establishment of its banks and companies, which would integrate the region to the growth and development of its monopoly- financial capital. However, the method was not novel. Already at the end of the previous century, the British had laid the foundations for the deployment of such imperialist domination. That is why, like Giovanni Arrighi, I contextualize my reading in the framework of The Long 20th Century that began in the 1870s and extends through the next century. Therefore, in this article, I try to examine how the British occupation of Egypt in 1882 and the debt argument marked certain guidelines that allow us to understand the dynamics assumed by US imperialism in its expansion in the early twentieth century in the Caribbean.

Egypt; Great Britain; United States; Dominican Republic; Mediterranean; Caribbean; imperialism; capitalism; crisis; debt; military occupation

Historical keys to rethink the theoretical foundation of argentine national identity. Ezequiel Ramos Mejía and Hipólito Irigoyen’s patriotic projects (1908-1919)

Cielo Zaidenwerg

This work analyzes some keys that allow us to re-dimension the historical and ideological context in which the foundations of the argentine ‘national being’ was developed, above all, in the theoretical design, highlighting the intrinsic value acquired by the task of civilizing and educate the budding population. In this sense, we expose the fundamental role, and the practice and discursive mechanisms assumed by the State and the Creole elites as sponsors of the argentinization process at the beginning of the 20th century. Furthermore, this study arises from the assumption that, in Latin America in general and in Argentina in particular, reinforcing the feeling of national belonging, contributed to legitimize state power beyond the ideological dye of the party- as well as reproduce the domination system.

Argentina; national identity; patriotic education; 20th century

The democratic city, the neighborhood movement, the Barcelona Model and citizen participation: one state of the question and proposal for analysis

Arnau López Espinosa

This article is a proposal of an analytical starting point for an historiographically studying of the evolution and transformation of a city like Barcelona. A proposal for three-way dialogue that aims to include the different aspects of the polyhedron that is the analysis of a city. Therefore, this analysis is based on the premise that, in order to analyze the city, it is necessary to study the dialogue – existing or not – between the rulers and the organized citizenship; Including, then, the different actors that intervene in the evolution and transformation of the city: social movements, city governments and policies of citizen participation. That is, through the analysis of the dialogue between the urban social movements and the democratic Barcelona city governments within the framework of citizen participation policies, indicating their nature, scope and limitations.

urban social movements; neighborhood movement; Barcelona model; citizen participation; democratic city

Working class and transition: a vision from the factory

Marta Mulero

The present article has the objective to expose the main conclusions of the doctoral thesis called Models sindicals al món de la fàbrica (1976-1982). Throughout the study of the working class movement in the metallurgical factories SEAT, ENASA, Hispano Olivetti, Motor Ibérica, Roca Radiadores and Maquinista Terrestre y Marítima, this paper analyzes the main axis of the workers struggle: decent working and salary conditions, democratic freedoms, amnesty, free election of workers’ representatives in companies and, from the mid-seventies and the effects of the economic crisis, the defense of the work places. The main goal of this article is to reflect the key role that the working movement played (along with other social movements) in the destabilization and the exhaustion of the Franco regime and the beginning of a democratic process.

working movement; amnesty; CCOO; factory councils; SEAT

Rereading Taula de Canvi: A bewildered left within a country in transition

Francesc Vilanova

Between the years 1976 and 1980 (therefore, in full departure from the Franco dictatorship towards the establishment of a democratic system), a group of people who came from various leftist organizations, promoted a magazine of analysis and reflection on political, economic, cultural, social, issues, etc. that wanted to deepen into the stage of profound changes, uncertainties and concerns that Catalonia and Spain were living, but also about the past, the present and the future of the world. The result was Taula de Canvi (Change Table), a monthly magazine that addressed Catalan and Spanish affairs, political thinking around the world, the realities and the pasts of the world political systems. Within this broad field of thought, the magazine also reflected on the concern and discomfort of most of the Catalan left with the evolution of the Spanish (and Catalan) transition from dictatorship to the establishment of democracy.

Alfonso C. Comín; PSUC; Bandera Roja; Democratic Transition; Autonomy; Pujolisme; Catalanism; Language; Jordi Solé Tura; Josep Ramoneda; Antoni Castells; Jaume Lorés; Marxism