N. 13 (2020)

N. 13 (2020)

Table of Contents

In memoriam

Santos Juliá in memoriam, 1-2

José Álvarez Junco

Nota editorial: Nova Etapa, 3-6

Researches and essays

Becoming party communists: the communist-syndicalists and the origins of the PCE in Catalonia, 1922-1924, 7-32

Arturo Zoffmann Rodríguez

Women of the PSUC in wartimes (1936-1939), 33-50

Cèlia Cañellas, Rosa Toran

Land in common. The agrarian collectivisation in Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War, 51-71

Guillem Puig Vallverdú

Autarchy in Spanish Guinea. An approach to the policies of profitability and economic coercion of Franco’s colonialism (1936-1959), 72-93

Celeste Muñoz Martínez

The appeals to the past during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39 or the impossibility of a neutral history, 94-122

José María Gómez Herráez

Italian agrarian reform seen from Spain (1918-1953). A critical comment, 123-145

Sergio Riesco

Dollars for the Federalization of Europe, 146-165

Víctor Gavín

Women’s Archives, Generations and Research: new questions stemming from the History of Feminisms in Italy, 166-189

Elena Petricola

Photography an instrument of power: a historical approach, 190-212

Enric Berenguer Garcia

The Making of the Working Class in Pamplona Under Francoism. New Approaches to Navarra Historiography of the Working Class, 213-237

Nerea Pérez Ibarrola

Barcelona City Council during the Transition: the ruptures of municipalism in the democratic construction, 238-260

David Moreno Muñoz

The Thorns of the Rose. The Hard Historical Path of Socialism in Catalonia (1945-2010), 261-279

Jaume Muñoz Jofre

Debates and dialogues, 280-322

Reviews and lecture notes, 323-407

Abstracts and Keywords

Becoming party communists: the communist-syndicalists and the origins of the PCE in Catalonia, 1922-1924

Arturo Zoffmann Rodríguez

In its early years the Russian Revolution became a beacon flare for the Iberian labour movement, particularly for the anarchists of the Catalan CNT. Paradoxically however, the communist movement that crystallised in Spain in the 1920s was dramatically impotent and isolated. This weakness was especially notorious in Catalonia. Yet here a small tendency of partisans of Bolshevism did emerge within CNT milieux, which developed an original strategy connected with kindred groups in other countries. They sought to win over the anarcho-syndicalist rank-and-file and recast communism from Barcelona, keeping the official PCE at arm’s length. However, in a context of defeat and stagnation for labour in Spain and Catalonia, the so-called communist-syndicalist faction failed in its endeavour to conquer the CNT and reluctantly joined the PCE in late 1924. Nevertheless, they maintained an independent élan that helps explain why most of these militants sided with the heterodox, anti-Stalinist, and Catalan-minded Workers and Peasants’ Bloc in 1931. This article traces the first steps of these pioneers of Catalan communism in 1921- 24, using new sources from the Soviet archives that shed light on the origins and evolution of this group.

Keywords: communism, anarchism, Catalanism, Russian Revolution, PCE, Bolshevik triennium

Women of the PSUC in wartimes (1936-1939)

Cèlia Cañellas, Rosa Toran

The will to win the war propels the PSUC to value the role of women in their tasks of helping the war front and doing propaganda for the resistance, this also implied their incorporation to work in positions previously restricted to men. Claims from the militants as well as self-criticism from the leaders, due to their lack of recognition, facilitated a progressive assumption of responsibilities at the party and youth levels besides visibility in propaganda events; nevertheless their own comrades were reluctant given their lack of preparation and the fear of them being competent in the jobs.

Keywords: Treball Newspaper; PSUC; Female Militancy: Activism, Emancipation; Militias; Work in the Rear-guard, Women’s Union, Antifascism.

Land in common. The agrarian collectivisation in Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War

Guillem Puig Vallverdú

The Rear-guard organization became a basic component from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, and the control of production one of the principal aims of the Republican bloc. Based on expropriation, in the Republican rear-guard different ordering forms were proposed. One of them was collectivisation, a model founded in collective production and management, which sought for an egalitarian society. During the war, these organizations expressed in urban areas of Catalonia with a major industry concentration. In spite of this, they also revealed themselves in the rest of the agrarian areas, where there had been a significant peasant movement the previous years. The resistances and supports, that it emerged in front of collectivisation, shaped the Catalan rear-guard, as well as the political speeches and action of the anti-fascist formations.

Keywords: Spanish Civil War; Collectivisations; Catalonia; Peasantry, Agrarian expropriations.

Autarchy in Spanish Guinea. An approach to the policies of profitability and economic coercion of Franco’s colonialism (1936-1959)

Celeste Muñoz Martínez

The African colonies under Spanish occupation and their role in Francoist economy, especially regarding autarchy, have generally been absent in the narratives about the dictatorship. This article proposes an approach to these issues from the analysis of the profitability of assimilation and punitive policies in the Guinean territory between 1939 and 1959. To this end, we focus on the study of territorial productivity indices, relating them to the intensification of social control exercised by the Patronato de Indígenas, the judicial system, the penitentiary institutions and through forced labour, offering conclusions that link the modes of production and the modes of punishment of the colonial regime.

Keywords: Equatorial Guinea; Francoism; Patronato de Indígenas; Judicialization; Forced Labour; “Braceros”.

The appeals to the past during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39 or the impossibility of a neutral history

José María Gómez Herráez

The Spanish War of 1936-1939 did not simply mean a propaganda orientation of history. The observation of the past served to stimulate in different ways the spirit of combat, resistance and internal collaboration. However also the socio-economic and institutional transformations in each area influenced the selection of themes, the omissions and the interpretations. In addition, there were variations depending on the medium of expression. This review contextualizes and comments on the perspectives followed in works grouped into four categories. Three of these correspond to the republican zone: texts of liberal-democratic inspiration, of type “workerist” type and of “catalanist” type. In the area controlled by the rebels, we present interventions in a course for teachers.

Keywords: Spanish Civil War – Ideologies – Historiography – History Teaching – Public Use of History.

Italian agrarian reform seen from Spain (1918-1953). A critical comment.

Sergio Riesco

The existing historiography tends to frame the agrarian reform programs in two great historical moments: the period after the First World War and during the 1960s within the parameters of the “Green Revolution.” Based on a certain recent bibliography, a critical review of the same view is proposed from the Spanish case. In Mediterranean Europe, some agrarian reform programs were born in democracy but were executed, in a very different way from how they were designed, during a dictatorship. There are certain parallels between the cases of Italy and Spain, whose agrarian structures were relatively similar, between a north where land ownership was more distributed and there was greater industrialization and a south where large property was predominant. In some way, political regimes, in democracy and dictatorship, had to respond to social demands. The role played by the large landowners was central to the success or failure of the reform programs, or agrarian counter-reform? However, changes and continuities can be found among those that were conditioning reform policies.

Keywords: Agrarian reform – Fascism – Interwar period – Francoism – Italy – Spain

Dollars for the Federalization of Europe

Víctor Gavín

During the first decade after the end of World War II, the United States firmly believed that Western Europe could reorganize itself politically, economically, and socially as a federation following the American model. To that end, they were willing to invest the money necessary to make it happen. While a program like the Marshall Plan is widely known, the dollars that were channelled through organizations that involved civil society such as the European Movement are less so. Organizations like the American Committee on United Europe (ACUE) were the bridge between the United States and Europe for US dollars.

Keyswords: ACUE, European Movement, Integration, Federation, Europe

Women’s Archives, Generations and Research: new questions stemming from the History of Feminisms in Italy

Elena Petricola

Since Seventies, the Italian women’s movement promoted the birth of archives, libraries and cultural centres. Thanks to this presence, the history of feminisms began to be documented together with the promotion and the circulation of women’s history, offering support to this field of research. In the next decades, the activity and the presence of these organizations increasingly spread, and some of them got more institutionalised. The availability of documents increased as well, thanks to the collection of new sources, like interviews, and to the donations of personal archives or single, groups and formal or informal organizations collections of documents, building physical and virtual archives. This process has been accompanied by many changes in the research field, involving research questions as well. In Italy, like elsewhere, women’s history and gender studies coexist, opening to new methodological issues. Moreover, the different points of view in the research, and particularly in the history of feminisms, are embodied in two, and quite three, generations of scholars. In this contribution, I will trace some aspects of the relationship among generations, research and archives in the last twenty years, using some examples of the production in the field of the history of Italian feminisms: which methodological questions and historiographic innovations they have introduced, which questions they asked archives and how archives replied.

Keywords: Women’s Archives; Generations; History of Feminisms; Methodological Questions

Photography an instrument of power: a historical approach

Enric Berenguer Garcia

To suggest that photography is one of the advances brought about by the Industrial Revolution seems obvious, but not only do we have to see it as a result of “modernity”, it is the result of the decantation of knowledge about the physical world that had long been before.

Since its appearance, two aspects of Photography have been considered, its use as a way of remembering the events that took place, and its value as a document, in the sense of testifying to a reality at a specific time. Both have served to turn it into a control tool.

Keywords: Industrial Revolution; Optics; Chemistry; Light; Documentation; Control

The Making of the Working Class in Pamplona Under Francoism. New Approaches to Navarra Historiography of the Working Class

Nerea Pérez Ibarrola

Navarra historiography on the working class movement during the Francoist era was developed over the 1990s by researchers focusing on labour unions, associated policies employed and on conflict. Little research has been carried out using new approaches introduced in the decade 2000-2010 which contributed to the opening of new lines of investigation in Spanish working class historiography. This paper presents the results of research that primarily focuses on exploring these new lines of investigation and raise new questions that contribute to the renewal of workers historiography in Navarra. This centres the historical analysis of the workers identities and addresses their conditions and the way these identities emerge, develop and act.

Keywords: Navarra, Francoism, Working Class Movement, Workers Identities, Historiography

Barcelona City Council during the Transition: the ruptures of municipalism in the democratic construction

David Moreno Muñoz

This article aims to set out the main points of the doctoral thesis “When Barcelona City Council was ours. The first democratic city council after Franco’s death (1979-1983)”. Through the study of the archives of Barcelona City Council, personal interviews and documentation from many public and private collections, this paper analyses the main points of the policy of the Catalan capital’s City Council, from the pre-democratic period of Josep Maria Socías until the end of the first democratic government since the recovery of democracy, formed by socialists, communists, nationalists and republicans (1979-1983). We will study and analyse the changes and continuities in a context of transition and democratic construction, where the city councils and Barcelona at the head will have a determining role in the formation of the new democratic regime.

Keywords: Transition, Municipalism, Democratic City, Democratic Rupture, Political Parties

The Thorns of the Rose. The Hard Historical Path of Socialism in Catalonia (1945-2010)

Jaume Muñoz Jofre

Although the objective of the formation of a unitary socialist party in Catalonia was among the founding aspirations of many of the forces attached to this ideology that emerged in this country since 1908, it was not until seven decades later that this project was it became a reality with the creation of the Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya (1978). During all this time, the obstacles that this ideological space had to face were multiple in Catalonia, both due to external factors and factors associated with the internal dynamics of its various actors. This article studies the tortuous path followed by the various socialist families in Catalonia during these first seventy years of history, focusing on the evolution of this political space –starting with the creation of the Socialist Movement of Catalonia (1945) and ending by briefly analysing the internal and institutional life of the PSC between 1978 and 2010. We will see, then, how the Catalan socialists went from being a minority option but with very influential representatives on the whole of the political life of the anti-Franco world to become, from 1977 onwards, key agents in the making of democratic Spain at the municipal, state and, finally, regional levels.

Keywords: Socialism; Anti-francoism; Transition to Democracy; Catalonia; Federalism

N. 1 (2008)

N. 1 (2008)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

Emptiness of memory. Uses and abuses of history in public life, 13-36

Stefano Pivato

Pierre Mendès France and the end of federal Europe (1954), 37-55

Víctor Gavín Munté

Crisis, agony and end of the liberal monarchy (1914-1923), 57-82

Francisco Romero Salvadó

Diplomacy and repression. The Spanish-French Persecution of the Republican Exile (1937-1951), 83-104

Jordi Guixé Coromines

Notes on the study of female collective action in Madrid in the first third of the 20th century, 105-124

Marta del Moral Vargas

Debates and dialogues

Historians and memory. The fruits of a troubled relationship, 127-140

Francisco Erice Sebares

In the principle it was the memory, 141-153

Jordi Casassas

About memory abuses. Brief punctuations to Jordi Casassas, 155-162

Francisco Erice Sebares

Reviews and lecture notes

Reviews, 165-191

Lecture notes, 193-208

Abstracts and Keywords

Emptiness of memory. Uses and abuses of history in public life

Stefano Pivato

At present we attend to a distancing process regarding the historical knowledge. The old idea about studying the past to understand the present has been replaced by a vulgar and instrumental knowledge of the history for the political uses in the present, specially accentuated dynamics in Italy. The appearance of new political parties —which takes advantage of current generation’s memory’s emptiness— is associated to the segmentation of the «historical memory» by means of a not scientific review of the Italian History. The result of rewriting the past of Italy, by the centred-right wing parties hand, is a shared memory where the fascism remains absolved and antifascism is despised.

History; Historical memory; Politics; Italy; Fascism; Antifascism

Pierre Mendès France and the end of federal Europe (1954)

Víctor Gavín Munté

Pierre Mendès France, chosen prime minister of France in June, 1954, had to carry out an ungrateful task, being it an about turn in the European politics of the country, but to which he devoted himself with full conviction: to change the course of the integration of Europe started with the Schuman Declaration of 1950 removing it from the theoretical target to construct an European federation, to which the project of the European Defence Community seemed to lead, and establishing that the states continued to be the key piece of the European order and that the integration had to strengthen but never debilitate them.

European Integration; France; 4th Republic; Pierre Mendès France; EDC; European Defence Community; Federal Republic of Germany; Konrad Adenauer; Paul-Henri Spaak; Federalism; Winston Churchill; United Kingdom; NATO

Crisis, agony and end of the liberal monarchy (1914-1923)

Francisco Romero Salvadó

This essay examines the final years of the Liberal Monarchy in Spain and the reasons for its crisis, agony and demise. It explores an era of revolution and reaction that started in the years 1916-17. This was a period during which in the face of unprecedented mass social protest and political mobilization, Spain’s governing elites were unable to retain their leadership of political society and were finally toppled by a military coup in 1923. The central focus of this study is on the increasingly violent social conflict and political turmoil that gathered momentum after the First World War and whose final outcome would be the civil war a generation later.

Liberalism; Social violence; Revolution; Reaction; Labour movement; Praetorian intervention

Diplomacy and repression. The Spanish-French Persecution of the Republican Exile, 1937-1951

Jordi Guixé Coromines

Diplomàcia i repressió is a research text that analyses the State, police and unofficial repression of exiles of the Second Spanish Republic in France during three important wars, the Spanish Civil War, the Second World War and the Cold War. The unofficial strategies and diplomatic agreements resulted in dark and sinister police policies that decisively affected the lives of thousands of people. This was a political repression and this work analyses this continuous repression from the Civil War to the «witch hunt» operation in France in 1950. The research is based on original documents stored in the national and ministry archives of France and Spain, as well as police documentation and files on police and military repression. The persecution and repression of republican exiles employed all kinds of casuistries and affected everyone from senior officials to the most humble exiles who were deported and exterminated. The Spanish and French states played their part in the entire process and the different diplomatic and geostrategic expectations have traumatically marked our history and our societies. The work with the primary sources enables us to see that these repressive policies are not remote, and are in no way anecdotal or trivial. They were policies —albeit erroneous— which were dictated in violation of all respect for human and citizens’ rights. In addition to the facts, the article provides a European insight into the Franco’s Regime’s hard, fanatical and obsessed «extraterritorial repression» of the republican exile.

Civil War; Franco Dictatorship; Exile; External Repression; Diplomatic Relations

Notes on the study of female collective action in Madrid in the first third of the 20th century

Marta del Moral Vargas

This article presents the objectives, hypothesis, sources and some theoretical premises with whom I attempt to analyze Feminine Collective Actions in the first third of the XXth century in Madrid. This research belongs to Social History, and especially, it contributes to Gender Studies. Although it’s a Women’s History research, it adds Gender Relations as a transverse category.

Gender; Madrid; Feminine Collective Action; Partially Transgressing Actions; Revolutionary Actions

Historians and memory. The fruits of a troubled relationship

Francisco Erice Sebares

Despite the different and generally legitimate forecasts which a large number of historians produce with respect to the expansion in studies on memory, the notion of collective memory and the investigations associated with it have established an extensive and well-established current of studies which crystallized during the decade of the eighties last century. The different problems for historians which the current social demand for collective memory in almost all societies and the complexity of the concept itself do not appear to be sufficient for it to be rejected by historians. On the contrary, the recovery of civic and social concerns by academic history on the one hand, and on the other, the use at the same time of the above mentioned concept using a critical treatment, may help to make historical material from the demands of today’s memory.

Collective memory; Historical memory; History; Historiography; Social sciences; Policy; Citizenship

In the principle it was the memory

Jordi Casassas

The paradigm of “historical memory”, in line with the fragmentation of the historical discourse, has steadily been imposed everywhere since the decade of the eighties until it has become a cultural factor. Besides the evaluations made, one cannot leave out the coincidence of a contemporary crisis in Western civil consciousness with a true extension of the public use of history with the leading role of the memory in this, to the point that the former has been supplanted by the latter. It is however necessary to warn everyone that mythification, induced amnesia or the unrealistic manipulation by those in power or the victors affects both history and memory in equal ways.

Memory; Historical memory; History; Historiographical structuralism; Historicism; Cultural factor; Policy

N. 2 (2009)

N. 2 (2009)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

Nation and identity in Spain. Some reflections, 13-23

Sebastian Balfour

Milestones in a history of intellectuals, 25-39

Santos Julià

Tourism, modernization and national idiosyncrasy in twentieth-century Spain, 41-62

Sasha Pack

The disorientation of the Spanish press in the face of the fall of Mussolini, 63-82

Alberto Pellegrini

Military against the July 1936 coup, 83-106

Joan Villarroya i Font

The new historiography of the Cold War, 107-119

Josep Fontana

Debates and dialogues

The genealogy of the Spanish political transition (1973-1977), 123-136

Ferran Gallego

Was there a transition? Arguments for a debate, 137-152

Álvaro Soto Carmona

What transition was there? The crisis of the Franco regime, the development of the reform and the origins of the Spanish political rupture, 153-164

Ferran Gallego

Reviews and lecture notes, 167-205

Abstracts and Keywords

Nation and identity in Spain. Some reflections

Sebastian Balfour

The territorial model set out in the Spanish Constitution, based on a contradiction in practice if not in the complementarities between regional and state government, has forged new political regionalism on the one hand, and almost regional nationalism on the other. Nevertheless, its citizens, according to polls, consider themselves Spanish to greater or lesser degrees, including the majority of Basques and Catalans, and feel comfortable in their dual or multiple identities. However, it should be emphasized that the problem of Spain as a state or nation-state is no exception, since the configuration of the nation and the state in different parts of Europe is changing at a dizzying pace. It is increasingly under the influence of globalization and a reconfiguration of the international political map towards a new multipolarity. It is possible that shared citizenship may in future replace shared sovereignty at the heart of the relationship between states and regions, although the predictions about the future are increasingly risky.

Identity; nation-state; Spain; region; territorial model; Europe; globalization

Milestones in a history of intellectuals

Santos Julià

Since Zola turned to a newspaper and Weber asked his listeners to imagine a world without newspapers, the fate of the intellectual and traits that define him would be linked to his ability to make an impact and gain publicity using the press, a historically privileged place in the public presence of the intellectual. The figure of the great intellectual that emerged at the end of the nineteenth century was made possible because the people of the liberal revolutions became the masses, which had just started to read. This was a time when entering higher education institutions was reserved for a tiny minority, while beneath them were the masses that wanted to read but still lacked a public voice, in contrast to the minority that knew how to write and did not stop talking. However, the protests of the Spanish intellectuals were born in the twentieth century. Here is a historical journey about the changing attitudes and roles of the group of intellectuals from the era of the emergence of this figure to the present day. It finishes by reflecting upon what happened to this creature, which emerged with its own name in the late nineteenth century, while in the late twentieth century there has been endless talk about the silence and the end of intellectuals.

Intellectuals; culture; liberal revolution; public opinion; press

Tourism, modernization and national idiosyncrasy in twentieth-century Spain

Sasha Pack

This article explores the role of tourism in Spanish cultural and political history in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although Spain developed moderndomestic leisure practices in the nineteenth century, tourism promoters were dismayed by the small numbers of foreign visitors they received. By the early twentieth century, the project of developing a receptive tourism industry became a major component of a broader program of national «regeneration». After the Second World War, when the Franco dictatorship faced international ostracism, foreign tourism became an important form of international relations. In the subsequent three decades, tourism became arguably the Franco regime’s most important political and economic good until problems of overbuilding and corruption ended the euphoria of Spain’s so-called «tourist miracle».

Spanish culture; political history; international relations; Franco dictatorship; tourism

The disorientation of the Spanish press in the face of the fall of Mussolini

Alberto Pellegrini

The Spanish press, docile instrument of Francoism, fully refl ects —between 1942 and 1945— all the embarrassment of a regime that loses, with the collapse of Fascism, its great political reference. The confusion of newspapers facing the Italian military and political catastrophe, after years of praising Mussolini’s system, expresses itself in often contradictory reports and articles: important events such as the dismissal of the Duce and the formation of Badoglio’s Government, the armistice and the creation of the Social Republic, are objects of radically different analysis. Thereby, we can notice an absolutely original aspect of the press in these years: its lack of uniformity, even in the framework of a general evolution of its judgment about Fascist experience.

Fascism; Francoism; Press; World War II; Italian Social Republic; Mussolini

Military against the July 1936 coup

Joan Villarroya i Font

The article deals with those members of the armed forces that opposed the coup d’état and lost their lives as a result. Some did so for ideological reasons, others simply because they believed that their duty was to obey the orders of the legitimate government. There were senior and junior offi cers from the army, navy, civil guard and assault units that did not hesitate to risk their lives in defense of the orders issued by the government of the Second Republic.

Military; army; coup d’état; Spanish Second Republic

The new historiography of the Cold War

Josep Fontana

A simplistic view of historiography has tended to show the Cold War as a confrontation between «good» and «bad» in the style of a Western. However, a new historiography of the Cold War is emerging that seeks to explain things differently, although its scope is still relatively limited. The most interesting part of what it bring mostly concerns the nature of this war, looking for its internal logic from the combination of political and economic factors behind it, to better understand their persistence. The history of over sixty years should be considered in terms of political causes that are much more complex than the clash between East and West, between really existing socialism and devious democracy. The Cold War accomplished, in the internal structures of the two opposing sides, the essential function of maintaining social order and controlling dissent. To explain the relationship between the Cold War and the maintenance of the current capitalist economic system will force us to look very carefully to a past that contains many of the keys to the disturbing situation in which we live today.

Cold War; historiography; capitalism; socialism; world politics

N. 3 (2010)

N. 3 (2010)

Table of Contents

In memoriam

Ángel Rozas Serrano

 

Researches and essays

Churchill, Roosevelt, and the Stalin Enigma, 1941-1945, 15-29

David Reynolds

The events of October 1934: beyond government action, 31-55

Manuel López Esteve

Between history, literature and memory: «This is my war, they haven’t told me», 57-94

Alberto Reig Tapia

Phalange, autarky and crisis. The general strike of 1951 in Barcelona, 95-124

Michael Richards

Actions and perceptions. The US ambassadors during the late Franco regime and the Spanish transition to democracy (1969-1978), 125-145

Misael López Zapico

Debates and dialogues

Urban history as a workers’ social history: some reflections on La quiebra de la ciudad popular, 149-163

José Oyón

The success of the Catalan urban model, 165-178

Francesc Roca

An unequal city, 179-191

José Oyón

Reviews and lecture notes, 195-228

Abstracts and Keywords

Churchill, Roosevelt, and the Stalin Enigma, 1941-1945

David Reynolds

During the Cold War, Roosevelt and Churchill were often targets of Western criticism for its negotiations with Stalin for Europe. At that time Russia was presented as an enigma to them. Today, this ignorance may wonder. The rise of superpowers seems inevitable; ideological enmity, axiomatic; and the Stalinist regime’s brutal nature, crystal clear. However, we must remember the problems that caused the Allies during the war uncertainties about Russia. In the heart of the enigma was the personality of Stalin himself. The major British and American legislators expected the policy of cooperation with the Soviet Union could extend beyond the war. Cold War ended was not producing the result they preferred neither expected.

World War II; Allies; Stalinist regime’s; Cold War

The events of October 1934: beyond government action

Manuel López Esteve

This article analyzes the several practices, concrete objectives and social and political projects that converged in the October revolt of 1934 in Catalonia. The working class movement, the «rabassaires» movement and poor peasants had important protagonist in the facts. They achieved to transform the October movement in a social insurrection simultaneously with the actions of Catalan government.

Spanish Second Republic; October revolution; Catalan government; insurrectional action; working class movement; peasant movement; social conflict

Between history, literature and memory: «This is my war, they haven’t told me»

Alberto Reig Tapia

It is necessary another novel on the Civil War? This is the question that could be a presentation to the assay of Professor Alberto Reig Tapia about the concepts of History, Literature and Memory in the Spanish Civil War. Considering the historian a medium of his time, and blurring the border between these three concepts previously mentioned, Reig Tapia proposes to analyze some historical novels on the topic that can help us to know the experiences and the spirit of the period. After a route that includes authors as Rafael García Serrano, Joan Sales, Antonio Muñoz Molina, and Jordi Soler, despite recognizing valuable contributions of the three latest ones, Reig Tapia answers in an affirmative way to the initial question: It is still necessary a novel on the Civil War that becomes an obliged reference paradigm and an indisputable part of our historical collective memory.

Spanish civil war; History; Memory; Literature; Historical novel

Phalange, autarky and crisis. The general strike of 1951 in Barcelona

Michael Richards

The Tram Strike of 1951 was the largest protest held in the city of Barcelona from the Spanish Civil War until 1976. It represented a turning point in the Franco’s regime, so it contributed to a slow change in the forms of domination imposed under the dictatorship. The article examines the causes of the protest, emphasizing the internal rifts in Falange and between Falange and the civil governor, to explain the initial support of related fields to boycott the regime trams. While the first officers of the protest were students and some members of the Falange, the workers became increasingly involved. The infiltration of anti-Franco among them union representatives, but also from some dissident members of the Falange, help to understand the call for general strike on March 12, which had a wide following in the Barcelona area and impact in several Spanish cities. Among the consequences the strike were an extensive repression, relief of many public offices in Barcelona, changes in the relations between civil governor Falange and the questioning of autarkic economic policy, with the introduction of liberalization measures.

Trams; boycott; general strike; Falange; Vieja Guardia

Actions and perceptions. The US ambassadors during the late Franco regime and the Spanish transition to democracy (1969-1978)

Misael López Zapico

This paper analyzes the role played by the U.S. Embassy in Madrid during a critical period of the Spanish recent History, the last years of the Franco Regime and the beginning of the Transition to democracy. Specifically, it focuses on review the behavior of the Chiefs of Mission in order to assess their real influence over the design of the relations between Spain and the United States. Also it studies the perceptions of those Ambassadors about the changes in Spain and their influence on the State Department.

Spain; United States; U.S. Embassy; Francoism; Transition to democracy

N. 4 (2011)

N. 4 (2011)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

The appropriation of the memory of the Jewish volunteers of the Spanish Civil War by the Zionist establishment, 13-34

Raanan Rein

Mission Impossible: The Republican Embassy in Washington (1936-1949), 35-55

Soledad Fox Maura

Neighborhood movements in Rome during the Italian protest cycle (1968-1976), 57-77

Noemi Alonso García

From university campus to temple of marginality. Social change in Spanish prisons during the political transition, 79-106

César Lorenzo Rubio

Holocaust, historiography and national identity in Germany (1945-1990), 107-128

Miquel de Toro

Debates and dialogues

Where the air turns: reflections on the nationalization in Spain, 131-142

Fernando Molina, Miguel Cabo

The three spheres. Towards a model of nationalization in Spain, 143-160

Alejandro Quiroga

Historiography and nationalization in Spain. Final reflections, 161-169

Fernando Molina, Miguel Cabo

Reviews and lecture notes, 173-209

Abstracts and Keywords

The appropriation of the memory of the Jewish volunteers of the Spanish Civil War by the Zionist establishment

Raanan Rein

This article analyzes the changing attitudes of the Israeli authorities towards the Jewish veterans of the International Brigades, most of them Communist. Following a brief overview of Jewish participation in general and Jewish Palestinian participation in particular in the Spanish Civil War, we focus our attention first on the initial reactions to the returning volunteers and then on two major events in the process of memory appropriation and gradual inclusion of these fighters in the Israeli national narrative: the 1972 Tel Aviv conference of Jewish fighters in Spain, sponsored by the Histadrut, and the 1986 speech by Israeli president Chaim Herzog on the 50th anniversary of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Once the fighters’ documents were deposited in the archives of the Israel military in the 1990s, the process was complete. Now they could be portrayed as Jewish heroes, national patriots fighting to protect their people and their homeland, Israel.

International Brigades; Jews in the Spanish Civil War; Israeli pantheon of war heroes; Israeli national narrative; Naftali Botwin battalion

Mission Impossible: The Republican Embassy in Washington (1936-1949)

Soledad Fox Maura

When the Spanish Civil War broke out, the Spanish Republican intellectual and politician Fernando de los Ríos was sent to Washington as Spain’s ambassador. In this role, he worked to publicize the cause of the Spanish Republic to politicians and the American public, and involved people throughout the United States in fundraising for Spain. His ambition was to convince the American government to abandon their «non-intervention» policy and sell arms to the Spanish government. This was a very clear goal for de los Ríos, and it seemed logical that the United States —a democracy, after all— would eventually come to realize the error of «non-intervention». For three long years the ambassador thought he was on the verge of achieving a reversal in US policy towards Spain. It seemed that President Roosevelt and other American politicians sympathized with the Republic; it seemed that the news of German and Italian participation in the war against the Republic had shocked Americans. Even the First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt berated her husband over his policy in Spain. During three years Fernando de los Ríos did his best to plead the Republican cause, and the American government’s consistent response was to be understanding, polite, and immovable. This article analyzes the obstacles de los Ríos faced, and situates them in the cultural and political context of the US in the 1930s.

Fernando de los Ríos; Spanish Republic; Embassy of Spain in Washington; Exile; International relations

Neighborhood movements in Rome during the Italian protest cycle (1968-1976)

Noemi Alonso García

The article undertakes a study of the neighbourhood movements that took place in Rome between 1968 and 1976. The features of these movements are firstly tackled, describing the changes in their theoretical formulations, their claims, their organizational structures and, above all, their ways of action. On the other hand, we also try to outline an explicative model that takes into account the possible factors conditioning the rising, decline and features assumed by the studied neighborhood movements. We put a special stress, in particular, in dynamic variables of the social and political context, such as the political changes taking place during the seventies, those featuring the situation of the mid seventies, the rising of a protest cycle in the Italian society, and the behaviour evolution, of the political counterparts and allies, towards these neighborhood protests.

Collective action; protest cycle; political changes; neighborhood movement; Roma

From university campus to temple of marginality. Social change in Spanish prisons during the political transition

César Lorenzo Rubio

At the end of Franco regime, the imprisonment of dictatorship’s opponents became one of the clearest symbols of its totalitarian character. However, inside prison, political prisoners resisted by increasing their political activity. From 1977, as these prisoners were released thanks to amnesties, common criminals took over the mobilization and gain prominence in claiming their rights. In response to the serious problems that ordinary prisoners had revealed, the state approved a prison legislation reform, although it did not result in an improvement of the situation. On the contrary, during the first years of democracy, prisons were marked by material shortages, skyrocketing prison population and the perpetuation of a new type of interpersonal violence.

Franco regime; transition to democracy; mobilization; prison; violence

Holocaust, historiography and national identity in Germany (1945-1990)

Miquel de Toro

Since 1945, memory of Holocaust has marked virtually every aspect of German society, including also the historians who have seen their scientific production marked by these events and the way they have treated. Therefore it is considered particularly interesting to analyze the relation between memory and historiography and the formation of German national identity with special attention to the period of division into two Germanys, so different and, at the same time, so similar in certain aspects. In both cases, the confrontation with the past has reached almost obsessive levels, even after reunification. If we accept the fact that the relevance of the past turned the history into an ideological minefield marked by political controversy, with very different degrees of distortion unconscious or deliberate, we must accept that historians have also played an important role in this process. History of Germany presents unusual challenges to scholars seeking to explain the complex relationship between politics and memory, challenges that have been marked by unconventional relationships with their national past. In this context, historiography has played a changing role that we analyze here.

National-socialism; Historiography; Collective memory; FRA; DRA

 

N. 5 (2012)

N. 5 (2012)

Table of Contents

In memoriam

Francisco Fernández Buey

Segle XX Editorial Board

Researches and essays

The Blue Shirts and Chinese Fascism (1932-1938), 15-36

Chiao-In Chen

Joan Ventosa i Calvell, the man of the Catalan League in Burgos. The relations of the conservative Catalanists with the rebel military during the Civil War, 37-61

Borja de Riquer i Permanyer

Refugees of Spanish Republicanism in North Africa during World War II, 63-83

Pablo Escribano Miralles

FET y de las JONS in the Catalan rural world of the postwar period, 85-114

Josep Gelonch Solé

The German colony, the American consulates and the de-Nazification in Vigo and Bilbao after the Second World War, 115-128

David Messenger

Debates and dialogues

On the rear guard at war against Catalonia, 1936-1937, 131-150

José Martín Ramos, Joan Villarroya i Font

Reviews and lecture notes, 153-196

Abstracts and Keywords

The Blue Shirts and Chinese Fascism (1932-1938)

Chiao-In Chen

From the 1930s onwards the influence of the fascist phenomenon led China to develop a “native” fascism. The Blueshirts fascist Society was born as a secret group amongst the military of Guomindang´s militants between 1932 and 1938 under Chiang Kai-shek´s direction, generalissimo of the Republic of China. In 1934 the Chinese fascism formed the New Life Movement, which is an organization of fascist trend with influence from the Confucianism, aimed to attain mass uptake. This article tries to explain the development of Blueshirs (their origins, formation, ideology and their relationship with the Italian fascist regime and the Germany Nazi regime) as well as to give a reflection about the Chinese fascism in the historiography.

Chiang Kai-shek; New Life Movement; Blueshirts; Chinese fascism; Guomindang

Joan Ventosa i Calvell, the man of the Catalan League in Burgos. The relations of the conservative Catalanists with the rebel military during the Civil War

Borja de Riquer i Permanyer

This article analyses the role of the Catalan politician Joan Ventosa i Calvell in the rebel area during the Spanish Civil War. His private correspondence with the head of the Lliga Catalana, Francesc Cambó, has enabled us to find out about the nature of the three interviews with general Franco in Burgos at the beginning of the conflict (October, November and December, 1936) and how the collaboration of the Catalan right with the rebel military materialized: financial support, financial advice, contacts with international economic groups, organization of foreign propaganda, etc. The information about the plans of the military regarding the future of the Catalonia, the nature of Franco’s regime and the post-war political climate are especially interesting. The prolongation of the war, the progressive fascistization of the Franco Government and the anti-Catalanism that existed in the “national zone” resulted in the marginalization of Ventosa, who had even believed that he might become one of the strong men of the Franco Government

Civil War; Lliga Catalana; Joan Ventosa i Calvell; Francisco Franco; Francesc Cambó

Refugees of Spanish Republicanism in North Africa during World War II

Pablo Escribano Miralles

The article presented below addresses the exile of the Spanish republicanism to the French colonies of North Africa (French Morocco, Algeria and Tunis), which starts during the last weeks of the Spanish Civil War. The study analyses the living conditions of the republicans and the impacts of the changes in international politics during World War II. The article highlights the distance between the French discourse on hosting and the hospitality practices and the persistence of certain repressive practices and discourses through the different regimes.

Spanish Republicans, exile, North Africa, camps, Second World War

FET y de las JONS in the Catalan rural world of the postwar period

Josep Gelonch Solé

The paper analyses the implementation of FET y de la JONS in the in land rural area of Catalonia during the post-war period. Making use of a methodology that prioritizes a ground level perspective and uses several provincial and local documentary sources, it wonders what capability the Francoist single party had to build a political structure and to penetrate in the social body in their will to control, frame, socialize and mobilize the society. The article provides a reality of the party that substantially differs from the speeches and rhetoric of those years regarding an unequal party’s deployment in the region, very limited human and material resources and the fact that it only partially achieved some of the party’s goals and assigned functions.

Francoism; New State; FET y de las JONS; rural area; postwar; social control; framing; socialization

The German colony, the American consulates and the de-Nazification in Vigo and Bilbao after the Second World War

David Messenger

Thousands of Germans in Spain affiliated with the Nazi regime during the Second World War were subject to efforts by the U.S. Government to return them to occupied Germany afterwards. How did American agents in Spanish cities implement this policy? What was the reaction of the German colony to these efforts? Finally, how did individual Germans wanted for repatriation respond to being named by both Allied authorities and Spanish officials who ultimately decided their fate? This study explores how the repatriation of obnoxious Germans impacted American officials, Germans and the Franco regime in the two communities of Vigo and Bilbao.

Second World War; German Colony in Spain; Repatriation; Allied authorities; Vigo; Bilbao

N. 6 (2013)

N. 6 (2013)

Table of Contents

In memoriam

Julio Aróstegui

Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart

Researches and essays

The digital history: a certain idea and some illustrations, 15-35

Anaclet Pons

Correct, punish and forget the rogue soldiers. Military justice in the first third of the twentieth century, 37-61

Ana Isabel Alegre

The anarchist rally, a form of popular culture (Barcelona, late 19th and early 20th century), 63-83

Antoni Dalmau i Ribalta

Novecento’s female prisons: a centuries-old punitive routine, 85-112

Fernando Hernández Holgado

Acción Gallega: agrarian populism and political change in Galicia during «Restauración» 1912-1915, 113-131

Miguel Villaverde

Traitors, conformist and passionate politics. A new interpretation of interwar Europe between biography, analysis of language and political history, 133-157

Steven Forti

Debates and dialogues

Fascism and terrorism: extremist ideologies as a poisoned fruit of modernity?, 161-172

Roger Griffin, Xavier Casals Meseguer

Reviews and lecture notes, 175-237

Abstracts and Keywords

The digital history: a certain idea and some illustrations

Anaclet Pons

During the past decades, new technologies have challenged historians traditional ways of research, writing, and dissemination of their scholarship. My aim in this paper is to outline a general framework for dealing with digital history, suggesting a distinction between «history in the digital age» and «digital history»: between scholars using some forms of digital resources and tools (word processing software, PowerPoint slides, email, library catalogues, etc.) and scholars developing a new understanding of history, engaged with the role new digital technologies can play in studying the past. This essay analyzes both perspectives, presenting a large range of cases and its significances.

Historians; historical research; new technologies; digital history

Correct, punish and forget the rogue soldiers. Military justice in the first third of the twentieth century

Ana Isabel Alegre

This article is meant to shed light on the evolution of military justice in the Bourbon Restoration. This complex topic deals with issues related to the construction of masculinity in the military concocted and sponsored by the military penal codes. I analyze how a paternalistic discourse was structured in the military judicial system which promulgated a militarized masculine stereotype by rewarding certain acceptable behaviors and punishing others, which is described in detail in this study of military barracks. The main sources of this work are the military records of soldiers from 1894 and 1900, in the military zone of Madrid. This analysis of official documentation is combined with the study of the court-martial case of a soldier named Francisco Pacheco, which was widely covered by the media in late nineteenth century, which is compared to another case which revolves around violent events undertaken by soldiers during a picnic in Madrid.

Military codes; masculinity; virility; military prosecutors; individual freedom; alterity; military paternalism; obedience; military offenses; military crimes; crime statistics; rogue soldiers; punishments; firing squad; court martial; twentieth century

The anarchist rally, a form of popular culture (Barcelona, late 19th and early 20th century)

Antoni Dalmau i Ribalta

The historiography of the Anarchist movement in Catalonia and Spain has devoted considerable attention to the different dimensions of what has been called the «anarchist culture», this being the case of the «ateneos», the rationalist education, the press, the arts or the theatre plays. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid on political rallies, an element of social upheaval which had its own specific ritual and became decisive in raising the awareness of the labour movement. Thus, this article discusses these public events in Catalonia during the turn of the 19th century and thoroughly analyses in depth all the components they had: typology, the monitoring by the authorities, the places where they took place, the staging, the speakers, the slogans and hymns, the languages, their literary and artistic dimensions, etc. Eventually, these rituals would be modified by the influence of political uses and by the expansion of the Anarchist movement itself.

Anarchism; meeting; working-class movement; Catalonia; 19-20th century

Novecento’s female prisons: a centuries-old punitive routine

Fernando Hernández Holgado

This paper analyses in general terms the female imprisonment in Spain along the XX century, with the so-called «galera», about 1600, as a national prototype. The characteristics of this model, plainly distinguished from the male one, would be summed up in a special rigour of the imprisonment –as prefiguration of the massive use of penal punitive seclusion- and well as an extraordinary stress on moral and socio-sexual «correction» of the female offender, by means of Religious agents. The article describes that course, looking in more detail at the II Republic political reforms as well as the civil war and post-war period, with extremely high prison numbers -both of men and women- and the penal discourse of retributive and redemptive character, within the Catholicism militant tradition.

Women’s history; Franco Regime; Female Imprisonment

Acción Gallega: agrarian populism and political change in Galicia during «Restauración» 1912-1915

Miguel Villaverde

Acción Gallega was one of the attempts to unify the force of the peasant unions in Galicia, under the banners of the fight against the caciquismo and the foros. Mostly active in the provinces of Ourense and Pontevedra, its charismatic leader was paradoxically a priest, Basilio Álvarez, who launched a campaign of meetings and propaganda which shook the foundations of the political system in Galicia. However, Acción Gallega eventually failed as a result of the lack of a solid structure, its inner contradictions and the combined offensive of the Church hierarchy and the monarchist parties.

Acción Gallega; agrarian societies; leadership; caciquismo; Catholic Church; political struggle

Traitors, conformist and passionate politics. A new interpretation of interwar Europe between biography, analysis of language and political history

Steven Forti

This article attempts to address the issue of transit by political and union leaders from the left to fascist organizations in interwar Europe, paying special attention to three national areas. European historiography has tended not to treat this subject, seeing it as something rather minor and irrelevant. A detailed study of the cases of Italy, France and Spain shows, however, that the exact opposite is true. Studying their heterodox paths in political activism, through a new methodological proposal, helps us challenge some superficial and deeply held certainties in the political history and political thought of the twentieth century and allows us to talk about the issue of political passion.

Fascism; Communism; Interwar Europe; Traitors; Political History; Political Passion

N. 7 (2014)

N. 7 (2014)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

Axis Diplomacy in Comparison: The Japanese and Italian Foreign Ministry in the 1930s, 1-12

Ken Ishida

Castells, sardanes and toros. The cultural disputes of nationalism during the dictatorship of Franco, 13-32

Pablo Giori

The International Committee of the Red Cross: the possible diplomatic recognition of Catalonia and the humanitarian effects on the Catalan political developments (1936-1939), 33-52

Arnau Gonzàlez Vilalta

On the move. Comparative sources for the study of the relationship between the labor movement and internal migration: Barcelona-Turin 1955-1969, 53-75

Michelangela Di Giacomo

Revolution, Transition and Democracy: the debate over the meaning of the Carnation Revolution, 77-98

Raquel Varela

Revisionism on the Brazilian dictatorship: the work of Elio Gaspari, 99-126

Gilberto Grassi Calil

Debates and dialogues

The ordinary life. Apología de la historia cultural, 127-138

Justo Serna

Las vidas corrientes en la historia social. Las vidas de todos y todas, 139-156

Lourenzo Fernández Prieto

Reviews and lecture notes, 157-234

Abstracts and Keywords

Axis Diplomacy in Comparison: The Japanese and Italian Foreign Ministry in the 1930s

Ken Ishida

Italy and Japan, which were the component of the Axis in the 1930s, had significant common features in their foreign policies although there were some structural differences in decision-making process. There were decisive developments in 1936 when Italy intervened in the Spanish Civil War and in 1937 when Japan started the all-out war against China. By comparing them, it was not only fanatic Fascists and ultranationalists that respectively pushed their countries towards adopting aggressive and reckless foreign policies, but also their foreign ministries despite the conventional wisdom that diplomats are often seen as being more moderate and rational.

Axis, Diplomacy, Comparative History, Italy, Japan

Castells, sardanes and toros. The cultural disputes of nationalism during the dictatorship of Franco

Pablo Giori

The contemporary Catalonia has been built over the basis of a very complex history of overlaps, battles and encounters between traditions, subjects and collective projects. The rhythm of the nation building processes are marked in their relationship and alliances with the hegemonic cultural practices: bullfighting, sardanes and castells. These practices develop not only ideas but also ways of doing things and feeling the world; through these, we participate in these projects in a relationship of identity and tension. We have to think about the conflicts between nationalisms during Francoism to understand the Catalan cultural development.

Contemporary Catalonia, Franco dictatorship, Culture, Nationalization

The International Committee of the Red Cross: the possible diplomatic recognition of Catalonia and the humanitarian effects on the Catalan political developments (1936-1939)

Arnau Gonzàlez Vilalta

The Spanish Civil War(1936-1939) involved the majority of European states in one or an other way, but it is also true that would do it with a political and neutral international organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). In order to mitigate the humanitarian impact on the civilian population, the Swiss organization deployed a wide range of activities through out the war.This action became of great importance in Catalonia through the Barcelona delegation that collaborated actively with the Catalan Government and the Consular Corps. Just pursuing the signature of an agreement with all the parties to the conflict to facilitate the possible evacuation of non combatant population is poised to foster international recognition (indirect) of Catalonia.The agreement was frustrated by the refusal of Largo Caballero and Franco, and impossibilities the decreasing of conflict victims.

Spanish Civil War, Catalonia, International Red Cross

On the move. Comparative sources for the study of the relationship between the labor movement and internal migration: Barcelona-Turin 1955-1969

Michelangela Di Giacomo

The Paper aims to define how and if it would be possible to make an historical research that would compare the attitudes toward inner migrations of some relevant workers’ organizations in Italy and Spain. It analyses the cities of Turin and Barcelona during the Sixties and in the couples PCI/PCE-PSUC and CGIL/CCOO. In the first part, it describes the sources: archives and bibliography. In the second part, it sketches some hypothesis about how to use those sources and it defines the principal points of a comparison.

Turin, Barcelona, Inter Migrations, Labour Movement

Revolution, Transition and Democracy: the debate over the meaning of the Carnation Revolution

Raquel Varela

The consolidation of a democratic representative regime from 1982-1986 and the abandonment of strategic projects of rupture, which only survive in extreme marginality, had a substantial impact on the historiographical discussion of the revolution. The Portuguese revolution not only ceased to be the subject of theoretical discussion, which was not further elaborated, as it even became, for some, submerged by the winners memory, which obscured the revolution with a vague notion of “chaos” and tried to erect upon it the theory of transition from dictatorship to representative democracy without a revolutionary leap. This phenomenon was revealed in the abandonment of the concept of revolution itself and the adoption of the concept of transition to democracy. We will discuss in this article three debates around the meaning of the revolution: the chapter ‘The revolution of 25 April and the PREC, by Rui Ramos in the history of Portugal he has coordinated, where the author sees the revolution as a ‘coup of generals’, directed by the AFM (MFA) on the ground, to which the people were essentially oblivious or manipulated; António Costa Pinto’s approach in more than one work, who sees the revolution as a troubled transition and consolidation of representative democracy; and Fernando Rosas’s analysis, for whom the process is marked by the revolutionary rupture that gave birth to democracy.

Social Revolution, Transition to Democracy, End of Iberian Dictatorship, Historiography

Revisionism on the Brazilian dictatorship: the work of Elio Gaspari

Gilberto Grassi Calil

In recent years various interpretations have been disseminated about the 1964 Coup in Brazil, about the dictatorship and the transition process to soften its violent character, splitting responsibilities between repressors and victims, in an operation that can be considered revisionist. The four volumes of books of journalist Elio Gaspari adopt and disseminate these interpretations, creating a narrative in which characters with prominent participation in the coup and in the dictatorship – such as Ernesto Geisel and Golbery do Couto e Silva – are presented in an extremely positive way. Our goal is to introduce and critically discuss its main propositions.

Historical revisionism, Dictatorship, Brazil, Elio Gaspari

N. 8 (2015)

N. 8 (2015)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

National concerns and international collaboration. The Dutch and the Germanization of Nazi occupied Eastern Europe,  1-21

Geraldien von Frijtag Künzel

Ossorio y Gallardo in Argentina: ambassador or publicist?, 23-45

Antonio López García

Local elections in Catalonia 1934, 47-75

Raimon Soler

The unavoidable happened. Israeli Labour, the Socialist International and the Arab-Israeli conflict, 77-103

Víctor Amado Castro

Barcelona, social movements and the transition to democracy: Gramscian hegemony, Spanish benchmark and Catalan break, 105-134

Marc Andreu Acebal

Debates and dialogues

Look at the present in historical terms, 135-148

Jaume Suau i Puig, Francesc Veiga Rodríguez

Reviews and lecture notes, 149-224

Abstracts and Keywords

National concerns and international collaboration. The Dutch and the Germanization of Nazi occupied Eastern Europe

Geraldien von Frijtag Künzel

During WWII, the Nazi-leadership inevitably used the services of ‘foreigners’ for its expansionist ambitions. Insofar as they supplied their services voluntarily, there are huge questions about the extent to which these grassroots level participants shared the same imperialist outlook as the leadership, and how the larger ideological aims of the Nazi-regime applied and were reconfigured at a local level. This article explores the Dutch contribution to the Nazi policy of Germanization in occupied Eastern Europe. It analyses the motives, experiences and expectations among the Dutch volunteers and supervisors.

Although most were favoring the establishment of a Greater Germanic Reich, they also had clear national goals: their work would help to restore Dutch grandeur by acquiring extra markets and territories. This article shows that these two aims were essentially incompatible and seriously complicated German-Dutch collaboration.

Collaboration; Germanization; The Netherlands; National-socialist expansionism

Ossorio y Gallardo in Argentina: ambassador or publicist?

Antonio López García

With the Civil War clearly favouring the rebels side, the Southamerican public opinion was inclined to the same side in what political propaganda and diplomacy refered. It was a situation that needed to be reconducted, and for that mission Argentina was a key element. Ossorio y Gallardo gathered the conditions which made him the suitable man in the Republican Government eyes. However, it happened to be too late.

Ossorio y Gallardo; Spanish Civil War; Republican diplomacy; Public opinion; Argentina

Local elections in Catalonia 1934

Raimon Soler

On January 14, 1934, municipal elections were held in Catalonia, which would became crucial for the further development of the events during that year. They had to replace all Catalan councils emerged from the elections of April 12 and were developed in a context of great political and social tension. In addition, for the first time in the history of our country women could participate equally with men in the election of councils. However, historiography has tended to ignore them, even to marginalize these elections, which represented a breaking point between right-wing and left-wing. This article aims to fill this gap and provide an overview of these elections.

Local elections; Second Republic; Catalonia; electoral processes; politics

The unavoidable happened. Israeli Labour, the Socialist International and the Arab-Israeli conflict

Víctor Amado Castro

This article discusses what the position of the Socialist International was and how it was adopted in the Arab-Israeli conflict  between 1947 and 1983. The Labour Party of Israel was supported politically by this international organization, as the representative of socialist Zionism and the State of Israel, totally and uncritically until certain time. This support, as the Israeli Labour what the sole representative of the Middle East in the Socialist International, modeled vision and determined the position of the IS toward so-called Arab-Israeli conflict. As of a certain point in time that began to forge from 1967, that support was growing progressively, more nuanced and critical about the policies on the conflict that various governments of Israel had adopted. However, and although this confrontation continues up to the present, the Socialist International has never questioned and has always supported the existence of a democratic Jewish state of Israel.

Israeli Labour; Socialist International; PLO; Israel; Middle East

Barcelona, social movements and the transition to democracy: Gramscian hegemony, Spanish benchmark and Catalan break

Marc Andreu Acebal

The civic movement forged in neighborhoods during the Franco dictatorship in Spain, in sixties was led by opposition militants (basically Communist and Christian activists base). Its structure in Catalonia was a series of neighborhood committees and associations. From 1972 onwards, it was organized in Barcelona

around a legal federation (FAVB) which was largely middle class and initially linked to the local Francoist establishment. However, it was quickly taken over by the urban and Catalanist left which enabled it to become a key part of the fight against Francoism and the struggle for democracy. This popular movement achieved numerous victories in Barcelona in terms of urban, social and cultural issues. Internal changes in the FAVB and their relationship with the local authority, but especially the appointment of Barcelona as Olympic 1992, imposed a change of scale and urban city model. This marked the end of this cultural hegemony and a democratic socialist idea of a city which, however, maintains its influence over the end of the street consensus forged during the transition.

Barcelona; social movements; Francoism; Spanish transition; neighborhood associations

Look at the present in historical terms

Jaume Suau i Puig, Francesc Veiga Rodríguez

This is a dialogue between two of the most recognized specialists in the History of the Present in our country, Jaume Suau i Francesc Veiga. Questioned about whether it is possible to set a start date for this immediate story, both reflect on epistemological and approach issues that they place not so much on the need for this date, but in one of its main objectives: the reconnection of Current History and long-term history, namely the classical history taught at universities. Perhaps this date, which sets a cycle closure, could be around thirty years, those that would constitute a generation which we can analyse as educated and rational people. On the other hand, the historian who is interested in the present does not compartmentalize his analysis in specific dates, but cares about significant facts to the extent that they highlight problems, processes and trends, in the scenario he lives directly. The historian of the present tries to understand this dynamic scenario. And he does so through a critical reading grammar based on the application of historical reasoning in today’s world.

history of the present; chronologies; today’s world; conflicts; new sources

N. 9 (2016)

N. 9 (2016)

Table of Contents

Researches and essays

The Spanish soldier and the Rifian warrior. The construction of masculinity in Spanish colonialism in Morocco (1900-1927), 1-24

Gemma Torres Delgado

Social attacks and the emergence of individualized violence in labor conflicts in Barcelona (1902-1917),  25-50

Juan Marinello Bonnefoy

Radical Catalanism, integral nationalism and fascism in Catalonia in the 1930s: historiography, theory and the state of the issue, 51-82

Daniel Roig i Sanz

Make America? The return and repatriation of Spaniards in migration studies, 83-106

Alicia Gil Lázaro

The birth of Alianza Popular as a confluence of Franco’s survival projects (1974-1976), 107-134

Miguel Del Río Morillas

Debates and dialogues

Between exaltations and censorship: the public discourse on Italian resistance seventy years after the Liberazione, 135-144

Santo Peli, Filippo Focardi

Reviews and lecture notes, 145-218

Abstracts and Keywords

The Spanish soldier and the Rifian warrior. The construction of masculinity in Spanish colonialism in Morocco (1900-1927)

Gemma Torres Delgado

This article analyzes Spanish colonial discourse about Morocco from a gender perspective in the context of the Rif wars. It focuses on the most reactionary sectors of military Africanism. It analyzes how—in this colonial context and in dialogue with the image of the Riffian man—a very specific archetype of Spanish virility is built: the soldier. This happens during a period—the twenties—of transformation and redefinition of normative masculinity in Spain. This archetype is a key element in the culture of the military who revolted against the Spanish Republic.

masculinity; colonialism; Morroco; Rif wars; gender

Social attacks and the emergence of individualized violence in labor conflicts in Barcelona, ​​1902-1917

Juan Marinello Bonnefoy

The concept of “social attacks” was used to describe the forms of violence associated with the pistolerismo era. This idea emphasized a unique aspect of trade union violence in Barcelona: the existence of individualized assaults as opposed to the collective nature of violence in other settings. The article analyzes the emergence of this violence through three turning points: the policy change regarding public order from a reactive to a preventive stance after the general strike of 1902; the development of organized attacks during the metal strikes of 1910; and the first attacks against employers of the textile industry.

social attacks; violence; trade unionism; strikes; Barcelona

Radical Catalanism, integral nationalism and fascism in Catalonia in the 1930s: historiography, theory and the state of the issue

Daniel Roig i Sanz

Although the debate on the existence of a catalan –and separatist– fascism has had a limited impact, this paper aims at approaching this matter through an historiographical journey around the main theoretical contributions, produced from the seventies until now, to this epistemological problem. In this regard, drawing from the contentious issues around the ‘escamots’ of Estat Català during the thirties, this work explores the scientific and educational production on the history of the Catalan separatism of that period. This paper also presents an analytical framework and an historic interpretation of the political and ideological sectors of the separatist movement, which steaming from an integral nationalism of Maurrassian origins, would adopt a good number of the ingredients, rhetoric and receipts of the new European radical right wing.

radical catalanism; integral nationalism; fascism; historiography

Make America? The return and repatriation of Spaniards in migration studies

Alicia Gil Lázaro

This article deals with the historiographical analyze of the migration studies, in particular about return migration, with emphasis in the perspective of repatriation of immigrants since the last third of 19th century and during the first half of 20th. To that end, we recover first the pioneering work of the sociologist Juan Francisco Marsal, called Hacer la América, biografía de un emigrante, published for the first time in 1969 in Buenos Aires. After that, we analyze the return migration in Spanish historiography, and then, we finish with an assessment of the recent production about repatriation of immigrants by the Spanish State

Return; repatriation; emigrants; immigrants; State

The birth of Alianza Popular as a confluence of Franco’s survival projects (1974-1976)

Miguel Del Río Morillas

Most of the historiography and studies usually focus the origins of Popular Alliance exclusively on the experience of GODSA, Democratic Reform and Manuel Fraga, without highlighting the importance of the remaining components of the platform (6 political associations of Franco origin). This article aims to analyze one of the political origins of the main backbone match of the current Spanish right (the Popular Party) as confluence of projects and Francoist political cultures of various kinds. A convergence process that would begin from 1974-1975 with the intent of unification of various political forces of July 18 around a great political association of the National Movement.

Popular Alliance; Far right; neo-Francoism; Francoism reformism; National Movement